Tom is a ten-year-old who enjoys swimming and baseball. He does not like social activities as well as big crowds. However, Tom can be irritable at times. He is full of fear around new people and may become silent and more reserved in those circumstances. His parents, as well as tutors, talk him through contact with new individuals. Tom is extremely opinionated and speaks in sentences. His reading is above grade level. Nonetheless, Tom dislikes writing. Much of his writing is sentences with numerous grammatical mistakes and slight detail. He also experiences hand tremor that has worsened over time. The shaking happens when he uses his hands for activities such as writing. His handwriting has become untidy and sprawling and very problematic to read. Tom experiences severe emotional and behavioral disorder. He has been progressively troublesome the past few months. He has verbal outbreaks and pushes classroom materials onto the ground after being given a task. His outbursts include shouting that he is not doing the task, telling a pupil to keep quiet, and calling students names. Toms teachers feel that they spend approximately two hours daily dealing with the behavior, and they usually respond by scolding him or an office referral.
Tremor or shaking slowed movement (bradykinesia), changes in speech, writing changes (it becomes hard to write, or your handwriting may appear small) as well as mood changes are signs that one may have Parkinson's disease. Some of the most traumatic challenges of Parkinsons disease come from variations in the feelings of patients, thinking as well as behavior. For example, dementia, cognitive changes, depression, as well as drug-induced psychosis are possibly crippling disorders that every so often accompanies Parkinsons disease. Over half of all the patients that suffer from Parkinsonism experience mental illness at some point in the course of the disease. This is found in the textbook Biology and Behavior by chapter 3 on pages 86-87.
Parkinsons disease can be explained regarding the four monoamines whose primary functions include regulating arousal, controlling feelings and behavior motivation. Serotonin mainly is used in a wide range of mental activities regarding emotional states and impulse control. Low levels of the transmitter are associated with sadness and anxiety as well as aggressive behavior. For example in the case of Tom, being given academic tasks by his teachers affected his behavior. He could push materials on the floor or even shouts that he will not do the assignment. At times he could tell other students to keep quiet or in turn use bad language. This action made Toms teachers feel that they spare some time every day to deal with his behavior and therefore they could respond by reproaching or reprimanding him or they could initiate an office referral. Ingestion of some drugs may block the reuptake of serotonin hence leaving more of it to bind with the postsynaptic neurons. These medicines find use in the treatment of a wide range of mental and behavioral disorders such as depression.
Possible side effects brought about by some Parkinsons treatment are compulsive and impulsive behavior. These behaviors have a significant impact on the affected person as well as those around them. Compulsive behavior occurs when an individual has an overwhelming drive to behave in a particular way, repeatedly, to reduce the tension they get from their desire. Impulsive behavior, on the other hand, occurs when an individual cannot resist the enticement to carry out certain activities. Examples of such activities may include an increase in negative thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. For instance, Tom cannot resist the urge to display violent behavior when his teachers give out academic assignments which he is not willing to do. Tom, however, does not think of the aftermath or the consequences that follow. An individual with impulsive behavior may perform a particular activity without consideration of the future or its long-term implications.
Compulsive and impulsive behavior is associated with dopamine levels in the brain. Dopamine is the chemical messenger found in the brain that is mainly affected in Parkinsonism. Dopamine helps in controlling movement, stability as well as walking. The dopamine-producing neurons gradually die off in people with Parkinsons disease. In the later phases of the disease, individuals experience cognitive and mood disturbances (Belch,87).People that are affected by spontaneous and compulsive activities are driven to do something that gives them an immediate return. Some medications used in Parkinsonism have been associated with these types of actions. Dopamine Agonists and sometimes Levodopa are drugs likely to cause these behavior side effects.
One development to manage Parkinson disease is deep brain simulation. The procedure involves implanting electrodes deep within the brain through a surgical procedure and using minor electrical simulation in the areas affected by the condition. Deep brain simulation of motor areas of patients suffering from Parkinsonism reverses numerous movement challenges associated with the illness. As much as deep brain simulation helps with the motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease, other symptoms of the disorder gradually become worse with time.
Belch, Hal. Biology and Behavior. n.d. Book.
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