Stroop effect is a demonstration of the most captivating cognitive effect. The effects explain that human brains are wired to process information that is conflicting differently to the way a straight forward information would be handled. For example, Stroop effect can be seen decision making with regards to sexist minds. It is confusing for the mind of a man seeing a woman performing tasks believed to belong to men so perfectly. Some men would take so long to believe it is really a woman doing such duty especially if they are dressed in male attire. Others would even assume that such ladies have male genes. Psychologically, a person of any gender, race or ethnic upbringing can perform any task provided they put their sexist belief before they could perform what they must do. This clouds their judgement when they see people of opposite gender performing duties that the society thinks they should never do. Having sexist thoughts or ideas would be psychologically embedded in individuals, and they would lack the knowledge of knowing that what they are doing is not in order. Most people have always fought such thoughts and beliefs by going a long way as to performing duties that are believed not be for the people of their same gender. For instance, a lady becoming a truck driver or power mechanics. These jobs are thought to belong to the male population, and in this situation, they would have challenged the modern notions of certain jobs belonging only to the male gender and natural ones being left for the females. Their involvement pricks the thoughts of several people who will either start having a different view in this matters or be involved in the process of changing the norm in the society. This explains a case of application of interference to the usual belief.
This topic is majorly focussed upbringing and factors influencing behaviors adopted in the process. For instance, t has always been realized that every decision that people are influenced somehow by certain factors beyond their control. That is to say that, no one has a free will choice. The cultures, belief, thoughts, the laws we impose on ourselves or others are somehow influenced by some past or present experience. These experiences form part of our developmental process. The society, therefore, acts to shape every move we make in life despite the fact that we would wish to take full responsibility for actions. What we experience in our society either makes to have better or even worse psychological thoughts. Inwardly, it is common for an individual to start as asking questions concerning the spring of their ideas. This is a difficult mental torture that you would free yourself from only by accepting the effects of the society on your thoughts (Nesselroade & Cattell, 2013).
The above-mentioned effect could be seen in the typical behavior of a trained animal. Take doctor for instance, when they are still puppies they would know only how to bark. They would yell at anyone or anything except the owner or their trainers. However, after some basic training, a dog that could only back be able to take instructions and even keep things like soda in the fridge. It is a fact that if such dog were left on their own, they would not be able to do anything apart from what the dog instincts tell them to do like bark or eat or run away. So this explains the lesson learned that free would never exist anymore. However, environmental forces fight tooth and nail to control our thoughts and belief making us become the people were are today. This could even be seen in different societies. For example, a word that is considered obscene among the Britons is widely accepted among the Americans and has even several meaning in English (Nesselroade & Cattell, 2013).
Condition and learning
This is a discussion of the behaviours that are acquired through association. A good example would be seen in animals especially dogs. Usually when training dogs, they would salivate whenever they see or smell their food. A conditioned learning occur when a bell is rung always before giving food to the dog. A constant repeat of this process would have the dog salivate every time they hear the bell even before they see or smell food.
The text focuses on the underlying factors that describe the differences in individuals' behavior through the study of groups of people. Personality, motivation, interest, IQ among other personal traits form part of the focus during this study. For example application of this topic in experimental psychology is seen in the decisions people make with regards to rules and ethical issues. Every day, people in different lines of duty are faced with situations that need them to take moral stands. It is a fact that rules usually guide decisions made. However, it is common to find situations when the rules go against the moral considerations or ethical instincts. For instance, hospital would have rules such as those requiring patients to pay certain amount of money before they can be treated at the hospitals. Situations however, arise when a patients who is suffering has no finances to carter for the bills needed before they can receive treatment. In this circumstances, one is caught between a rock and a hard wall concerning what they should actually do. Different people would make varied decisions in this kinds of situations. This kinds of situations pricks the mind and make people to start questioning a lot of things concerning judgements that people make. It is common to have people disagree with systems and rules in this kind of situations. This would be a case of human decisions against or for the ethical standards. Decisions made would be based on individual character.
Scanning short term memory
This is a discussion of the relationship that exist between response and rate of memory recognition. Various body conditions affect this rate. For instance, the state of the body and mind influences the response rate. Psychological tests have proven that it is wrong for one individual to receive torture that is both mental and physical in the lifetime. It is believed that mental pains could be worse than physical pains imposed on people. This, therefore, means that if an individual is exposed to both at the same time, they would have the worst human experience that would alter how they respond to situations. Most people who have ever been exposed to this double pain system have often gone made this is because a balance between the physical stress and psychological well-being is needed for survival. The converse of the statement also holds true in most situations (Gentner & Stevens, 2014). A good state of mind and body physique is useful for good decision making and quick response. Peoples judgements get clouded when either the mind or the body has a challenge. Maybe this would explain why a hungry child would quickly steal food from the kitchen. In the situation of hunger, the child gets to forget that theft is bad and they would be punished if caught. The child is simply responding to a situation of hunger.
Understanding of psychology
The knowledge of psychology has proved to be very useful in my life especially with my daily routines such as work. I have realized that people do whatever they do mainly because of their upbringing lesson or their interactions with the environment. Before I got to learn psychology, I use to blame people for every single mistake they did. I believed that people make mistakes at free will and mostly to understand others. This cultivates a hatred spirit in my heart, and therefore, I ended up having a bad relationship with most of the core-workers. However, having understood the role of the environment on the behavior and functionality of people, I have learned to embrace people for who they are and only try to inform them if they do things that do not please my conscience. It is no longer about the wrong they have done but now about why could they have done such? I know most people would view my new attitude as a waste of time and energy. However, I have gained more confidence and happiness in adopting this new approach. I even have a better work relationship with my staff mates, and this makes the working environment more appealing to me than it used to be before. I remember, before adopting this new attitude, I often felt bored going to work because I knew someone eats work would make come and spoil my moods. This is in the past now, if anyone gives me lemons, I simply use it to make sweet lemonade and drink it as undergo my daily activities with a bright smiling face. The truth is most of my workmates have been impressed, and they keep asking me about my secret of being so positive whereas others conclude for themselves. My statement to them always is that it is in your minds, imploring that proper use of their psychological thoughts would help them achieve a similar or even much better behavior and state of mind.
Thinking regarding probability and evidence provides useful tips for understanding psychology. This is because they help to give meaning to every situation that occurs in our surrounding. The thoughts in line with probability contribute to give the possibility that something happens. It contributes to identify and list all the possible chances of something happening. This contributes to giving a clue to the direction in which a matter undergo investigation should take. In fact, the changes help to provide probable answers to a situation that would otherwise go unanswered. However, it is important to apply lots of critical thinking in the use of probability to determine the cause of a situation. This is because there is always an underlying factor that is hidden to the eyes and can only be identified by using the third eye in the investigation (Valentine, 2015).
On the contrary, it is the evidence that proves whether the probable answers derived are true or false. The evidence gives surety beyond a reasonable doubt to a situation. One should never struggle to make the evidence correspond to their answers obtained from probability. In situations where the reply from the evidence is different from the probable response, the evidence is taken and the answer obtained from probability discarded. The evidence thus provides the surest response that any subconscious mind can trust beyond any reasonable doubt (Gentner & Stevens, 2014).
Valentine, C. W. (2015). The experimental psychology of beauty. Routledge.
Nesselroade, J. R., & Cattell, R. B. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology. Springer Science & Business Media.
Gentner, D., & Stevens, A. L. (2014). Mental models. Psychology Press.
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