Learning English as a Second Language - Research Paper Example

2021-07-29 21:20:29
7 pages
1732 words
University/College: 
Wesleyan University
Type of paper: 
Article review
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Abstract

The acquisition of a second language is a complex process. Through scientific research, we have come to a better understanding of the processes that take place and the factors that influence them. Learning itself is not simply a matter of intelligence and fitness but also of attitude and motivation. This has been an area of interest for foreign language teachers and psychologists. In all areas of learning, motivation is essential to succeed. Theories of foreign or second language learning and teaching helps in building various on sets and types of ontological and epistemological assumptions about the very nature of reality and existence. There are two aspects that are especially important in learning a second language: the communicative need and the attitudes of the students towards the community that speaks it. For many people, learning a second language is an expected consequence of their social environment, necessary for communication. When a person perceives the need to communicate with others, obviously this will increase their motivation to learn the second language. For this reason there is so much emphasis on studying abroad when possible. A general way to increase students' motivation is to create courses that encourage them to perceive the language as an instrument of communication value. Another way is to provide many opportunities to practice. Knowing what we know about learning, how can we specifically stimulate the interest and motivation of students in the classroom? The importance of the student's attitude about the foreign culture has been proven. The language a person uses is connected to the way he perceives his identity and his world. Consequently, when you learn the language of another culture, you accept the other way of perceiving the world, to a certain extent. When a person has a positive impression of the other culture, this can increase and enrich the learning process. On the other hand, if an apprentice has a negative attitude, this will create strong internal barriers.

Not all students have preconceived notions that influence them in this way. For these students, their experiences in the classroom become very important. So the instructor occupies a unique and powerful position to influence the formation of a positive attitude and motivation that the students are forming about the culture in question. What many people who have not tried to learn a second language do not understand is how difficult it is compared to learning their native language. This difficulty is the reason why motivation, attitude and strategies are so important.

Keywords: learn English as a second language; learn to read and write; self perspective; learning a second language and learning difficulties; review of studies.

Introduction

The acquisition of a second language is a complex process. Through scientific research, we have come to a better understanding of the processes that take place and the factors that influence them. Learning itself is not simply a matter of intelligence and fitness but also of attitude and motivation. This has been an area of interest for foreign language teachers and psychologists. According Mueller (2014), success in studying the second language in the formal, namely, school environment may depend on two variables: Talent (talent for language acquisition and general intellect) and School language concept. In this model the most important variable is the pupils language self-concept. language self-concept of the pupil - self-confi dence, self-trusting (Selbstvertrauen)- this is the trust in ones own language skills, as Muller calls it - language self-program which is the result of long accumulation of the experience. Accurate self-evaluation of the own skills in language, which is founded namely on this basis, expresses the pupils achievements more exactly (Muller & Dittman-Domenichini, 2008).

In all areas of learning, motivation is essential to succeed. There are two aspects that are especially important in learning a second language: the communicative need and the attitudes of the students towards the community that speaks it. For many people, learning a second language is an expected consequence of their social environment, necessary for communication. When a person perceives the need to communicate with others, obviously this will increase their motivation to learn the second language. For this reason there is so much emphasis on studying abroad when possible. A general way to increase students' motivation is to create courses that encourage them to perceive the language as an instrument of communication value. Another way is to provide many opportunities to practice. Knowing what we know about learning, how can we specifically stimulate the interest and motivation of students in the classroom?

The importance of the student's attitude about the foreign culture has been proven. The language a person uses is connected to the way he perceives his identity and his world. Consequently, when you learn the language of another culture, you accept the other way of perceiving the world, to a certain extent. When a person has a positive impression of the other culture, this can increase and enrich the learning process. On the other hand, if an apprentice has a negative attitude, this will create strong internal barriers.

Not all students have preconceived notions that influence them in this way. For these students, their experiences in the classroom become very important. So the instructor occupies a unique and powerful position to influence the formation of a positive attitude and motivation that the students are forming about the culture in question.

The 21st century and globalization impose challenges on students and citizens of the world, among them, the development of bilingual competence, understood as the psycho sociolinguistic ability that the subject possesses to use two or more languages in order to encode and / or decode messages according to his communicative, labor, academic, cultural needs, etc. (Baker, 2011, Galindo, 2013, Liddicoat, 2013). Likewise, the boarding of the study of bilingualism requires a multidimensional view, given that its development includes cognitive, affective, educational factors, socio-cultural issues, among which are those related to individual differences, particularly the EAs of L2. The present article focuses its interest in English second language learning, mainly consecutive in a university context, in relation to the learning styles factor of L2. Also, in the educational, cognitive and language sciences there is a growing interest in understanding and explaining the characteristics of acquisition of an L2 in the process of bilingual school education.

From a psycholinguistic perspective of individual bilingualism in the educational field and from differential psychology, research documentary that is reported here revolves around the following. This study is relevant, among other reasons, for its contributions, from the fields of bilingualism, psycholinguistics and differential psychology, the conceptualization of learning styles in bilingual education and its relationship with the acquisition and use of an L2 in contexts academic This in line with what was expressed by Cummins (2002), as to what research in the field of individual differences and the domain of an L2 still has much to explore. On the other hand, it is important to mention that the analysis of the studies reported here in the different educational levels show, -under a view of development human (Piaget, 1972; Signoret, 2013- a dynamic panorama of how as subjects in bilingual education mature and progress in their cognitive development, their AEs of L2, acquire certain peculiarities.

Finally, the investigative tendencies are appreciated that in the last decades have permeated the relationship between cognitive, affective variables and physiological that underlie the concept of EA (Keefe, 2008) of L2 and other variables of socio-biological, educational and cultural type.

Different authors have addressed the topic of motivation towards the study of the English language as a foreign language (EFL) and as a second language (ESL). (Garner 2009, quoted by Skehan (2013) suggests that expectations regarding bilingualism, combined with attitudes toward the second language and its culture form the basis of what the individual's attitude toward the learning of languages. Likewise, it suggests a model that introduces the four differences Individuals believed to have the greatest influence on the acquisition of a second language.

These include the variables of intelligence, aptitude for languages, motivation and anxiety situational. On the other hand, aspects such as learning to learn, existential competence are mentioned (know how to be) and intercultural awareness. In this last point we can mention the importance which has the fact that the student compares his own cultural environment with that of another country and so on be aware of the diversity that exists in the world, enrich your language and know how you perceive your culture in other countries (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, p. 103-104). The student must recognize his position and that of his own country in the globalized world current, especially when a large number of people in the world, even in nations with high poverty rates, speak two or more languages.

Aims and Objectives

As can be seen, the attitude towards a foreign language and culture has a key importance in motivation. Several authors have examined this topic and have received recommendations they range from behavioral, cognitive, humanistic, social and even spiritual aspects. In the specific case of this work, the recommendations range from the cognitive area the areas inside and outside the classroom, (Crookes & Schmidt, 1991, cited by Nada, 2002). Regarding cognitive factors, it is necessary to favor processes of language assimilation English in terms of a meaningful and satisfactory personal search, that is, encourage motivation from within by means of strategies aimed at achieving the following goals for the student:

Get him to see a connection between the English language and his reality (not necessarily

Make the student value the results of success. The aspects related to the classroom indicate the need to adapt the techniques and activities to teach English, to refine the thematic contents and to treat, to the extent the possible, to increase the curiosity and interest of the student. Outside the classroom, at students can be shown all the resources that are within their reach to continue learning English on your own, many of them are free or low cost considering the favorable geographical position of this region of our country. Likewise, it is especially important that a large part of the responsibility corresponds to the teacher. In addition to achieving the aforementioned goals, the teacher's responsibilities

The Faculty of Languages must be:

Implement and create working environments and healthy atmospheres in the living room of class.

Preach with your own example. That is to say, he must be a teacher who dominates technology, which is constantly updated in the latest knowledge and techniques of class teachin...

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