The modern world or rather the present days have made the aspect of sexuality more flexible in the sense that individuals are allowed to express their sexuality with respect to their sexual orientation. The concept if sexual fluidity has become common when calling for the rights of individuals who are not heterosexual. Since the traditional times, the role has always been assigned as per the gender of an individual whereby boys are expected to take on distinct roles, and girls are also expected to take roles that align with their gender. Various scholars have provided different views in relation to how a selected form of sexuality is socially organized.
The social organization of sex is that it is sex-structured. Rubin in his article Thinking Sex presents an overview of how sex has been treated from the ancient times until the 21st century. He puts into perspective how various forms of lewd behavior were approached in the past and the present. He highlights various forms of sexual behavior among young children such as nanonism and masturbation whereby parents and guardians used certain control methods to ensure that their children were morally uprights and not driven by sexual arousals. Some of the control methods included tying them up at night when sleeping and burning sections of the clitoris (Rubin 267). The perspective was that sexual activities in the young stages of life would result in mental issues and stunted growth. He presents the view that sexuality is political, similarly to gender, in the sense that it is structured into systems that reward and encourage the activities of certain individuals while also punishing the activities of others. He explains that the current sexual construct has been subjected to political struggle from the time it began to its current status. The structuring of the laws that took place in the late nineteenth century made it possible for the homosexuals to lead their lives without fear of oppression. (Rubin 270) Furthermore, erotic products began to be produced in large numbers, and organizations were protecting the rights of the homosexuals were formed. By the 50s, homosexuality literature were widely present, and the gay rights were widely advocated. He explains that sex is taken more seriously when compared to its persecution whereby individuals are systematically oppressed because of their sexual behavior (Rubin 293). Furthermore, there are serious repercussions for belonging to particular sexual orientations. He presents the view that erotic creativity should be encouraged by which the individuals who view themselves to be progressive need to update their knowledge on sex, assess their preconceptions in addition to familiarizing with sexual hierarchy (Rubin 293). Therefore, the social organization of sex is that it is sex-structured.
Secondary features regarding physical appearance are socially organized due to sexual selection. Rubenstein in the article Sexual and social competition: broadening perspectives by defining female roles explains that in Darwins viewpoint regarding sexual selection, males appeared to figure more conspicuously when compared to the females (Rubenstein 2248). Darwin focused on presenting an explanation on the significance of the secondary features in animals that appeared not to bring about any social advantage. The curiosity came about after he observed important traits in males. The hypothesis was that the traits in males assisted in attracting mates in addition to the competition (Rubenstein 2248). From his analysis, he concluded that the evolution of the secondary traits is attributed to the choice that females make when it comes to male-male competition. He explains that all sexes engage in social competition; an important aspect in understanding the evolution of signals (Rubenstein 2251). The concept of sexual selection was coined by Darwin to explain male-male competition. The current analysis has also put into focus female-female competition with the view that the traits in females are also influenced by the choices made by males. The author explains that there is need to assess whether the female traits secondary traits contribute to their mates accessing them in addition to social ranks. Intersexual competition and intra-sexual social choices influence the evolution of traits for both sexes. The author explains that females are often overlooked with the view that they use secondary traits to access only mates (Rubenstein 2252). He asserts that despite the need for sexual conflict between male and female sexes, females interact with both male and female in both reproductive and non-reproductive situations. The point to note is that the various form of social interaction results in the evolution of secondary features in both males and females. In other words, the traits influence the evolution armament and ornament features in both sexes. In regards to how a selected form of sexuality is socially organized, it can be viewed that the evolution of male secondary features is socially organized depending on the selection by the females. For example, the females preference for men who are masculine, tall and light skin complexion brings about babies with similar features. Men and also women tend to adapt to certain secondary features because of the present social organization (Rubenstein 2252). Therefore, the secondary features in regards to masculinity and femininity are socially organized due to sexual selection.
Clutton-Brock and Huchard in the article, Social competition, and selection in males and females, also support the viewpoint presented by Rubenstein on sexual selection. They explain that despite individuals being solitary, members of either the female or the male species or from both sexes create either permanent or temporary associations in various species. The scholars assert, While individuals of both sexes commonly evict rivals, sex differences in the frequency of eviction and the intensity of overt competition between group members often appear to be greatest in whichever sex most frequently remains and breeds in their natal group, (Clutton-Brock & Huchard 74). Also, when individuals are confined in regards to time and location, sociality overwhelms the aspect of competition among them when it comes to the need for reproduction and survival. The powerful individuals become advantaged such that the desirable features that assist in competition are maintained. Sexual selection is viewed to be part of natural selection whereby the favorable traits are targeted when it comes to social organization. The selection influences the evolution of both sexes concerning both male-male competition and female-female competition (Clutton-Brock & Huchard 74). The scholars present the recommendation that, classifications of selection based on distinction between the form of competition or the components of fitness that are involved introduce unnecessary complexities and that the most useful approach to understanding the evolution and distribution of differences and similarities between the sexes is to compare the operation of selection in males and females in different reproductive systems (Clutton-Brock & Huchard 74). Therefore, the secondary features in regards to masculinity and femininity are socially organized due to sexual selection.
Homosexuality is socially organized depending on age and ones location. Laumann et.al in the article The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States puts into perspective the social organization of homosexuality in the society. The scholars explain that the analysis of the spread of homosexual behavior puts into perspective the aspects of desire, age, and identity (Laumann et.al 1038). As per their analysis, 4.3% and 9.1% of women and men respectively engage in same-sex sexual activities from puberty. For the men, 4% of the percentage engaged in the same-sex sexual activity before 18 years while for the women is 1.4% of the total. Also, 2.8% of the men claimed to have a homosexual identity (Laumann et.al 1039). Studies done in both Britain and the U.S, found that there were regional differences in regards to homosexual behavior (Laumann et.al 1039). In the U.S., homosexuality was prevalent in twelve popular large cities. In the UK, the contact between male homosexuals was two to three times the rate in London. In Britain, homosexuality was more common in men when compared to the women. The scholars attribute the regional differences to the migration of homosexuals to areas that are more accepting in addition to the effects present in the social environment in urban areas. The view is that they preferred staying away from environments where they have to hide their identity to be socially accepted. Living in accepting areas makes it easier for them to adjust and lead their lives normally without feeling oppressed. The scholars assert, Opportunities for same-gender sexual behavior are greater and sanctions are fewer in big cities than in smaller places, (Laumann et.al 1039). Therefore homosexuality is socially organized on the acceptability of regions and age.
Sexual relationships in regards to lifestyle come into perspective when it comes to social organization. In other words, the sexual lifestyle of an individual is socially organized in various ways. According to the article, Sexuality - The Social Organization of Sexual Relationships, it is estimated that 24% of individuals between the ages of eighteen and fifty-nine are not yet married or are single. 29% of the population are men while 20% are women (Family Rank). The individuals either willingly choose the lifestyle such that they associate it with the subculture of the single people or lack the ability to form stable relationships. Also, the individuals lack sexual partners or have multiple partners and hence adapting to the singlehood status. The age also comes into perspective in regards to the number of partners whereby women and men who are beyond forty years old lack partners when compared to young people (Family Rank).
According to the article, on reports regarding the sexual behavior of individuals, 7% of the participants reported living with people from the opposite sex while 94% of couples that were cohabiting perceived themselves to be married. However, the couples reported high cases of infidelity when compared to those that were legally married (Family Rank). Also, 2.7% of the male population and 1.3% of the female relationship were engaged in same-sex relationships, and that about 60% and 80% of male and female homosexuals were in steady relationships. The article indicates that Limited data suggest that members of lesbian couples are as faithful as members of heterosexual couples, whereas gay men are less likely to be monogamous. Regardless, both gay and lesbian couples report levels of satisfaction with their sexual relationships that are as high as married and cohabiting couples, (Family Rank).
Polyandry is also another form of sexuality found in the modern society that involves a relationship with more than two partners and the partners mutually agree on the relationship. Kraus and Moritz in the article, Extreme polyandry in social Hymenoptera: evolutionary causes and consequences for colony organization, explain that polyandry is a common behavior that is present in the animal kingdom. The scholars explain that the form of sexuality tends to be costly especially for the female who has to consider issues such as the spread venereal diseases (Kraus & Moritz 414). Polyandrous sexuality is not very common and is practiced mostly in the Indian and Himalayan communities. It involves a woman having multiple husbands and mostly brothers (Starkweather & Hames 150). It is considered beneficial as families engage in joint pro...
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