Sexual assault on campus is on the rise. In fact, a significant number of students have expressed concerns about the issue with 38% of students from University of Virginia describing it as very problematic (Cantor et al. 13). Recently, there have been heightened efforts to establish evidence-based measures to curb it. As a result, sexual assault on campus has attracted the attention of many researchers who have studied it at length. With the aim of coming up with workable solutions to address the problem, the scholars have studied different forms of the sexual assault, the effects of the assault on the victims (especially male) and different ways of preventing it. According to Cantor et al. (2015), there are various forms of sexual assault on campus. Common forms include sexual harassment, intimate partner violence and stalking (Cantor et al. 25). On the other hand, Turchik et al. identifies various effects of sexual assault on the victims (243). The male victims of sexual victimization are most likely to engage in excessive weekly alcohol consumption, increased tobacco use, amplified problematic drinking behaviors, increased sexual functioning difficulties and increased sexual risk-taking behaviors (Turchik et al. 243). With different forms and effects of sexual assault identified, Newl undertook a critical review of the issue to establish various evidence-based measures that can be undertaken to combat sexual assault on campuses. The author suggests effective preventive measures such as risk-reduction programs with women, prevention programs with men, mixed-gender programs and community-level programs (social-norms campaign and bystander-prevention) (3). Different forms of sexual assault on campus students have serious effects (excessive weekly alcohol consumption, increased tobacco use, amplified problematic drinking behaviors, increased sexual functioning difficulties and increased sexual risk-taking behaviors) on the victims and the only best practice is to firmly install various preventive measures to combat the issue.
The proposed project aims to deeply examine sexual assault on campus by looking at various forms of sexual victimization on the victims, resulting effects and possible evidence-based measures to prevent the abuse. In so doing, the three scholarly sources identified (Canto et al.; Turchick et al.; Newl) shall contribute towards examining the issue in various ways. Cantor et al. aids in examining the various forms of sexual assault on campus. The authors help in elaborating the three common forms of sexual assault that occur on the campus; sexual harassment, intimate partner violence and stalking (25). Sexual harassment entails behaviors that hamper with the victim's professional or academic performances by limiting victim's ability to participate in a program or created a hostile, intimidating or socially offensive academic environment (25). Intimate partner violence, on the other hand, encompass acts such as threatening to physically harm the victim, threatening to out the victim to others, keeping the victim from going to class or attending academic programs, slapping, choking, punching and attacking the victim with a weapon among other acts characterized as amounting to abuse (26-27). Finally, the authors explain stalking as a sexual victimization in which the perpetrator sent unwanted emails, instant messages, unwanted phone calls, or posted unwanted videos and pictures, or spied or watched the victim all of which makes the victim afraid of their personal safety (28).
On the other hand, Turchick et al. help in exploring the various effects of sexual assault to the victims. According to the authors, male victims are likely to suffer excessive weekly alcohol consumption, increased tobacco use, amplified problematic drinking behaviors, increased sexual functioning difficulties and increased sexual risk-taking behaviors (243).
Lastly, Newl helps in investigating the various evidence-based ways of preventing sexual assault on campus. The different prevention ways identified include risk-reduction programs with women, prevention programs with men, mixed-gender programs and community-level programs (social-norms campaign and bystander-prevention) (3).
Therefore, the three sources shall play a critical role in advancing the proposed project through examination of the forms, effects, and ways to prevent sexual victimization on campus.
Cantor, David, et al. Report on the AAU campus climate survey on sexual assault and sexual misconduct. Washington, DC: Association of American Universities, 2015.
The study reports on a project that was conducted at the University of Virginia to address concerns relating to incidence and prevalence of sexual misconduct and assault. The study had three aims; to estimate prevalence and incidences of various forms of non-consensual sexual contact, intimate partner violence, harassment and stalking, collect student views on the environment in which sexual assault occurs and to evaluate student knowledge as well as assessing school resources for responding to sexual assault. The authors build credibility in the facts with reputable sources, presenting convincing statistical facts, and successfully utilizing ethos and logos to appeal to the audience.
The authors employ ethos to appeal to the ethics of conducting research especially one that collects information on the people. "The first safeguard against participant distress was the process of informed consent," (106). In research, it is an ethical practice to obtain informed consent from the participants and this way the authors appeal to the reader that they obliged to research ethics in compiling their study. Also, the authors appeal to ethos through the inclusion of various sources to their project such as Koss and others to explain terminologies in the research questions. It places the project in a scholarly standard.
Supplementing ethos, the authors utilize strong appeals to logos with overwhelming facts and statistics measuring the issues investigated in the study. The authors begin with describing the sample size of 20,743 participants (2). The authors aim to show that they had selected sufficient sample to answer the research question hence enhance the credibility of the research findings. Also, each research question was accorded statistics (in table and graph formats) to express the findings of the study as reported by the respondents. The statistical facts back up the authors' conclusions and recommendations.
Ideally, the author successfully employs ethos and logos to appeal to the audience by backing up the study with academic baselines as well as facts and statistics which are clearly described with tables and graphs.
Turchik, Jessica A. "Sexual victimization among male college students: Assault severity, sexual functioning, and health risk behaviors." Psychology of Men & Masculinity 13.3 (2013): 243.
The study intended to examine a relation, if any, between sexual victimization experiences in male and engagement in health risk behaviors as well as sexual functioning. The authors established that sexual assault among men is related to increased weekly alcohol consumption, increased tobacco use, increased problematic drinking behaviors, increased sexual functioning difficulties, and increased sexual risk-taking behaviors. In building the study's credibility, the authors begin building the credibility of the study through reputable sources that highlight the findings of various previous studies on sexual assault and appeals to ethos and demonstrates appeals to logos by outlining the logical procedures that were followed to arrive at the findings.
In the beginning, the authors establish a strong baseline by citing statistics and facts forming the basis of the study. The authors build their argument by citing that between 3% and 8% male have suffered sexual victimization. The opening facts and statistics that the authors rely on building the baseline are obtained from these sources; Coxell et al., 1999; Eliot et al., 2004; Serenson et al., 1987; Tjaden and Thoennes, 2000 (243). They are reputable sources that help the authors in appealing to the audience that indeed men suffer sexual victimization and it is important to explore the effects on the victims. This is an ethical appeal where the authors demonstrate to the audience the severity of sexual victimization on male and that they owe a moral responsibility in creating awareness about the effects male victims suffer to pave the way for mitigation measures.
Alongside reputable sources that built ethos, the authors have gone ahead to structure the study in an organized manner that goes down to develop a logical appeal. The authors describe the methods, procedure, data analysis, and results. Logically, a well organized and flowing work results in credible outcomes which in this case are the credible findings of the study. To enhance organization f the study, the authors presents the results in clear tables that aid towards clarity of the findings and conclusions.
Although the authors tend to use older sources, the idea of using more sources with concurrent statistical findings works well to overcome the weakening credibility caused by older sources. Backed with ethical and logical appeals resulting from well-established study baseline and a superb logical organization, the researchers successfully deliver credible findings of the study.
Newl, Rory. "A critical review of sexual violence prevention on college campuses." Acta Psychopathologica 2.2 (2016).
The author undertook a critical review of the evidence-based sexual prevention ways on college campuses. The author's task of building the credibility of the study begins with citing facts and statistics from reputable sources, followed by ethical appeals, emotional and logical appeals.
In the beginning, the author begins with citing statistical facts from reputable sources to show the reader that sexual assault figures are significant. "Nearly 20% of college women in United States have experienced rape." (1). The author imports statistical facts to build the arguments about the severity of sexual assault to establish a basis for prevention.
After the author establishes a basis with the statistical facts from reputable sources, Newl goes ahead to establish ethical appeals to convince the audience of the need to prevent sexual assault. The author cites the commitment of the Obama's administration in responding to sexual assault on campus (2). The author intends to justify calls to the prevention of sexual assault on campus by showing dedication by the government to support prevention initiatives.
Alongside ethical appeals, the author employs emotional appeals to change peoples' attitudes towards sexual assault on campus and call for prevention. The author says "the aftermath of sexual victimization is severe and far-reaching," (1). This is an emotional appeal that elicits the reader's empathy feelings towards suffering victims of sexual assault and draws their attention to prevention of the menace.
Lastly, the author appeals to logical reasoning by highlighting prevention measures backed by scholarly journals. Each of the prevention measure highlighted by the author has been supported by a scholarly source to show that it has been proven to work.
Therefore, the author successfully employs ethos, pathos, and logos to appeal to the reader into accepting the suggested prevention ways to deal with sexual assault on campus.
Resolution of Perspective and Conclusion
Evidently, sexual harassment, intimate partner violence, and stalking are major forms of sexual harassment on campus which have let to adverse effects on the victims. Sexual...
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