Application of Gestalt's Principle
The underlying notion of this principle is that human beings have the tendency to generalize visual components into one integrated model rather than viewing them as fragmented parts (Koffka, 2013). For example, when undertaking a degree in medicine at the University, one of the predetermined conceptions would be that the completing the course would be a daunting task in the initial phase. This aspect is because it is expected that a student would view the course as a whole unit instead of the subunits that comprise of it. On the other hand, an individual may draw similarities from within the course based on the related medical issues. It is thus not uncommon for the student to bear the assumption that when these medical queries are placed in the same context as the classroom, they are bound to have the same function. Another perception would be that any successive courses undertaken are but a continuation of the antecedent course. The argument is that when one visualizes the entirety of the course, he identifies the sub-units in an uninterrupted fashion. Some of the details that seem to contradict my initial beliefs were that I discovered that the course is quite manageable than I had earlier thought. In addition, some of the sub-units that were assigned to me were not necessary related to the main course work, but instead, they comprised of additional content. Consequently, the courses offered may not be related such that they follow each other in a sequential manner implying that there is no validation that the succeeding course is an extension of the previous one.
Techniques for keeping the audiences attention
Contemporary research demonstrates that the best way to gain the audiences attention is to keep them engaged throughout the announcement. The preliminary step involves challenging the audience with an inquiry that stimulates a brainstorming session. The participants may be asked to vote by a show of hands, using clickers or a system of detecting audience response signifying active participation. Incorporation of a narrative during oration serves as a means of altering te pace of message delivery. Aspects such as the element of surprise and dramatizations may be employed to bring out a powerful effect on the message alongside directing the audiences attention towards what is being said (Gallo, 2010). Besides, concrete examples may be used to support the ideas being put across and are in direct reference to the most important points. Drawing comparisons from recent events may be used to augment the essence of the message. Finally, a speaker may appeal to the audiences imaginations by stimulating their senses while guiding them to direct their attention towards the message embedded in the announcement.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
The first stage of development is referred to as the Sensorimotor Stage where a child gains knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulation of objects. After interacting with objects and comprehending that they are distinct components, a child begins to distinguish between the functionalities of the objects and in the process attaches names or words to the different objects. The next phase integrates the Preoperational Stage where an individual learns through the world of make-believe and reenacting scenes. Nonetheless, the child still struggles with the basic knowledge as is evidenced by the fact that a toddler is likely to choose a flat shaped modeling clay as compared to a spherical one. This occurrence may be attributed to the childs perception where he views the flat shaped clay as being larger, yet they are of the same size just that they have different shapes. The Concrete Operational Stage involves the development of logical and critical thinking paradigms though the cognitive process in this stage may be rigid due to the struggle of processing theoretical and abstract concepts. Here, a person begins to empathize with other and understands that their opinions and feelings may not necessarily be the same as those of others. The final stage is the Concrete Operational stage where there is an augmentation in logic, and one develops the ability to employ deductive reasoning techniques and comprehension of abstract ideas (Cherry, 2014). In essence, the final stage is the most ideal since one can develop multiple solutions to life challenges which are quite essential as a survival instinct.
Analyzing Vygotsky's Theories
One of the components of the above philosophy holds that adults play a huge role in the cognitive development of their children. Other elements include that social factors and cultural background contribute to the cognitive development (Lantolf, Thorne & Poehner, 2015). As such, my parents successful completion of their undergraduate studies would culminate in the transmission of their reading culture and intellectual adaptation. All these components would prove integral, and a source of motivation throughout my learning at the university and also provide fundamentals of the importance of interacting with peers as a contemporary learning measure.
Cherry, K. (2014). Piaget's stages of cognitive development. About. com.
Gallo, C. (2010). The presentation secrets of Steve Jobs: How to be insanely great in front of any audience. Prentice Hall.
Koffka, K. (2013). Principles of Gestalt psychology (Vol. 44). Routledge.
Lantolf, J. P., Thorne, S. L., & Poehner, M. E. (2015). Sociocultural theory and second language development. Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction, 207-226.
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