The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition that is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. It is among the disorders that affect the language developmental processes in children.
As outlined, the three main symptoms of this condition affect children by making them impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive. However, their impact on the language development process varies across the board. In addition, the condition mainly tends to affect children, hence its categorization among the childhood disorders.
Most individuals with the condition usually develop it during their early childhood years. In occasions where the condition is not treated in the course of ones childhood years, it persists undeterred for long periods. Children with this condition usually face massive difficulties completing simple tasks, sitting still or observing directions and instructions.
Description of ADHD
ADHD is mainly characterized by a combination of various symptoms. These symptoms include impulsivity, inattention and hyperactivity.
Inattention is mainly characterized by inability to maintain ones focus to a specific task for a long period. As such, they tend to procrastinate more frequently, especially in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, these young patients tend to lose track and forget things easily.
They portray restlessness through their actions and occasionally tend to begin numerous activities simultaneously, only to leave them halfway (Barkley, 2014). Young patients suffering from hyperactivity mainly exhibit incessant movements. According to research, they usually have a difficult time sitting still. They tend to talk excessively and without pauses.
Additionally, these children tend to suffer from attention deficit. They are easily distracted and always move aimlessly without notice of their surroundings. Some of their descriptive actions include squirming in seats and wiggling their feet (Barkley, 2014). Young ADHD patients exhibit excessive movement of body or limbs in occasions when they are expected to be attentive.
Impulsivity in children suffering from ADHD makes them unable to think beforehand, hence tend to make blunders in their actions. Some of their actions associated include running in the streets without a careful observation of traffic rules. These children also tend to speak without critically reasoning out what they intend to speak (Feldman and Reiff, 2014). As such, they tend to blurt out expressions that may be deemed inappropriate and abusive.
Their restlessness prevents them from remaining calm or observing patience. In most young patients, actions such as the grabbing of their fellow childrens toys and other acts of insolence are usually observed (Barkley, 2014). Eventually, children suffering from impulsivity face difficulties maintaining friendship.
In conclusion, ADHD is a condition that is characterized by a series of disorders that may include inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity. However, other conditions such as depression, learning disabilities and anxiety also form a significant portion of these symptoms. Some of these symptoms tend to be more visible depending on the overall conditions as others are often mild in nature.
Background Information and Research
ADHD was previously known as ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder). It was mainly reported among elementary students. As such, most identification and treatment programs were tailored and targeted towards this population.
The treatment processes has recorded high success rates, especially when the condition is identified early in life and actions taken to cure it. Scholars have further established that the condition mainly affects boys than girls (Helland, et.al, 2012). Research further shows that 5% of the worlds child population has exhibited hyperactivity and impairments in their levels of attention.
This indicates that they bear certain aspects characterized with the condition. Mild symptoms associated with the condition have also been reported to affect quite a number of the worlds total population. According to Barkley (2014), preschoolers with ADHD symptomseven in their mild conditionshave been reported to also exhibit temper tantrums or aggressive behaviors; which may lead to a misdiagnosis as symptoms such hypersensitivity and inattention are overshadowed by such behavior. The underlying symptoms, however, become more visible and clearer with time.
One of the main factors leading to the development of ADHD is linked to complications encountered during pregnancy. As such, the condition cannot be prevented; however, its symptoms can be managed through increased care and assistance to the affected children. This assistance helps the young patients to make the best out of their school and home activities. Considering that the condition interferes with the normal way of life among affected individuals (Feldman & Reiff, 2014), research shows that increasing the quality of life of patients assists them to overcome the difficulties associated with the disorder.
Furthermore, research further indicates that staying healthy during pregnancy plays a critical role in ensuring the healthy growth and maturity of the baby. Research also shows that staying healthy can be attained through healthy diets, frequent workouts, and regular doctor visits (Helland et al., 2012). Avoiding harmful substances such as alcoholic beverages and other drugs also assists in keeping the baby healthy throughout the pregnancy. Smoking mothers put their childrens lives at a greater risk because it negatively affects the childs growth, an aspect that may result in the development of ADHD after birth.
Possible Effects on Language and Literacy Development
ADHD negatively affects the processes of language and literacy development in numerous ways. The main problems experienced by ADHD patients in language development mainly touch on:
As such, the child faces difficulties in comprehending and using various components of sentence construction. They become unable to communicate properly as their comprehension abilities are limited (Helland et al., 2012). Additionally, the difficulties in processing auditory components of language negatively affect the process of language development.
The young patients abilities to hold constructive and meaningful conversations become limited. The ADHD patients further face serious hurdles in understanding and thinking critically (Helland et al., 2012). Their abilities to solve problems are also affected by their inability to efficiently think through a problem and implement the procedures required in solving them.
Based on the difficulties associated with the processing of oral and written content, both their language and literacy development processes are impacted negatively.
Interventions Promoting Language and Literacy Development
Numerous interventions have been availed, which could be applied in solving the problems associated with literacy and language development problems among ADHD patients.
One such intervention is the introduction of various learning styles (Barkley, 2014). This would require an analysis of the childs specific difficulty, and using the information in tailoring a favorable learning style.
The introduction of the kinesthetic style of learning to children with weak auditory learning skills would yield productive results. Learning through demonstration and action works best for children with auditory learning weaknesses.
Additionally, tutors are also advised to keep their explanations or instructions short, precise and easy to understand. Involving the student in the learning process is also established as an effective intervention mechanism for learners with ADHD (Helland et al., 2012).
Ultimately, the use of repetition when introducing new concepts, as well as allowing the students adequate time to comprehend and digest information has been established as an effective mechanism for language and literacy development.
Barkley, R. A. (2006). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=psyc5&NEWS=N&AN=2006-03340-000
Feldman, H. M., & Reiff, M. I. (2014). Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(9), 2014. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcp1307215
Helland, W. A., Posserud, M.-B., Helland, T., Heimann, M., & Lundervold, A. J. (2012). Language Impairments in Children With ADHD and in Children With Reading Disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 20(7), 581589. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712461530
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