Literature Review Example on the Effects of Electromagnetic Pulse

2021-06-28 12:09:33
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916 words
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Harvey Mudd College
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Literature review
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There are minor events of EMP that have the ability to cause little electrical noise. Such events include pulse trains. The events can also cause interference with the ability to affect susceptible devices operational activity. In a vehicle for example, when the voltages are high, an EMP can induce a spark (Shenk, 2012). These sparks have in many cases, caused (fuel-air) explosions which bring in the issue of precautions as a way of mitigating such explosions. In case the energy produced by the EMP is large, high currents have the ability to induce voltages which can lead to either permanent damage or temporary disruption. In the case of large events of EMP like lightning strike cases, damages of objects like aircraft or buildings can result (Emanuelson, 2017).  The damage process is either by disruption or heating effects from the magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are generated by the current. There are also indirect effects which would arise. These effects include electrical fires from the heating process. Due to such EMP effects, engineered structures or even systems need to be protected from lightning effects. Since high EMP energy levels have devastating effects, weapons like tactical missiles have been developed to ensure that the maximum effect of EMP gets absorbed (Emanuelson, 2017).

According to Burke & Schneider (2017), a situation in which could lead to the detonation of any nuclear device would lead to the generation of EMP. The process is likely to lead to a catastrophic effect on any national electricity grid which would be associated with long-term outages of power. Such scenarios would be frightening (Burke & Schneider, 2017). The large EMP voltages are also likely to affect the critical infrastructures of which the potential outcomes are like attacks. The EMP effects have the ability to erode the capabilities of military operations and of which would bring political pressure (Effects of Electromagnetic Pulse, 2017). One particular instance is the case of the U.S. military that has its bases connected to the electricity grids just like many kinds of economic targets. Any EMP attack that may be associated with the high-altitude detonation of nuclear can be experienced in such bases.

In summary, the transient electromagnetic disturbance also causes interference. Such interferences can either damage electronic equipment or are disruptive (Emanuelson, 2017). Also, at higher levels of energy, massive EMP events like lightning can be destructive enough to cause damage to physical objects aircraft or buildings. Due to such reasons, EMP effects management has become one very important aspect of EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) engineering. According to Burke & Schneider (2017), a situation in which could lead to the detonation of any nuclear device would lead to the generation of EMP. The process is likely to lead to a catastrophic effect on any national electricity grid which would be associated with long-term outages of power. Such scenarios would be frightening (Burke & Schneider, 2017). The large EMP voltages are also likely to affect the critical infrastructures of which the potential outcomes are like attacks. The EMP effects have the ability to erode the capabilities of military operations and of which would bring political pressure. In case the energy produced by the EMP is large, high currents have the ability to induce voltages which can lead to either permanent damage or temporary disruption. In the case of large events of EMP like lightning strike cases, damages of objects like aircraft or buildings can result (Emanuelson, 2017). The damage process is either by disruption or heating effects from the magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are generated from the current.

 

Reference

Shenk, S. (2012). The Devastating Impact of an Electromagnetic Pulse: Can it Happen?. Infowars. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from https://www.infowars.com/the-devastating-impact-of-an-electromagnetic-pulse%E2%80%A6can-it-happen/

Emanuelson, J. (2017). EMP Effects on Vehicles - Futurescience.com. Futurescience.com. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from http://www.futurescience.com/emp/vehicles.html

Kelly-Detwiler, P. (2014). Failure to Protect U.S. Against Electromagnetic Pulse Threat Could Make 9/11 Look Trivial Someday. Forbes.com. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/peterdetwiler/2014/07/31/protecting-the-u-s-against-the-electromagnetic-pulse-threat-a-continued-failure-of-leadership-could-make-911-look-trivial-someday/#3032ed6d7a14

EMP. (2017). THE ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE AND ITS EFFECTS. ORIGIN AND NA TORE OF THE EMP. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from https://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/www/effects/eonw_11.pdf

Burke, S., & Schneider, E. (2017). Do We Need to Worry About Electro-Magnetic Pulse Weapons Wiping Out the Power Grid?. Slate Magazine. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2015/07/emp_threats_could_an_electro_magnetic_pulse_weapon_wipe_out_the_power_grid.html

Effects of Electromagnetic Pulse. (2017). The Effects of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) on Cardiac Pacemakers - Preparedness AdvicePreparedness Advice. Preparednessadvice.com. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from http://preparednessadvice.com/emp/the-effects-of-electromagnetic-pulse-emp-on-cardiac-pacemakers/

Brenner, R. (2017). What are the Effects of EMP on People | Survival Life. Survival Life. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from https://survivallife.com/emp-effects/

Ontario, O. (2016). Leaders Statement on a North American Climate, Clean Energy, and Environment Partnership. Prime Minister of Canada. Retrieved 10 April 2017, from http://pm.gc.ca/eng/news/2016/06/29/leaders-statement-north-american-climate-clean-energy-and-environment-partnership

White, House. (2016). North American Climate, Clean Energy, and Environment Partnership Action Plan. whitehouse.gov. Retrieved 10 April 2017, from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/06/29/north-american-climate-clean-energy-and-environment-partnership-action

I Stockphoto. (2013). Human activities causing climate change? Retrieved February 19, 2017, from https://www.science.org.au/learning/general-audience/science-booklets-0/science-climate-change/3-are-human-activities-causing

Canada, E. G. of, & Canada, C. C. (2015, November 27). Facts on climate change and causes of climate change. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from http://www.climatechange.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=65CD73F4-1

Preventing and preparing for climate change. (2006). Retrieved February 19, 2017, from http://cehtp.org/faq/climate_change/preventing_and_preparing_for_climate_change

Global climate change. (2017, February 16). Retrieved February 19, 2017, from https://climate.nasa.gov/

 

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