The society sets out certain expectations concerning different genders. However, gender relationships, processes, and social reproduction were shaped throughout history. Much of the social reproduction happens in the family unit through the distribution of duties affected by the family, market, community and the state. Nonetheless, the feminist idea of social reproduction is a bit different when compared to that of modernization theory, which seeks to overturn all the traditional beliefs and give the woman a voice in a male-dominated world. Feminist, considering women continue to fight for their rights get equal opportunities with men.
Regarding Reddit, an online space that seeks the views of diverse men, the issue of plastic surgery is well discussed. Some men feel that in this modern world, women have a voice and can decide to change their looks without the influence of a man. Most of the women who undergo the process of plastic surgery do not even inform their husbands. They view this issue as personal and concerns their looks and self-esteem. A few male doctors recommend the process; however the outcomes may be, stating that the effects are for building up the self-confidence of a woman. In fact, some men view this as a broad step and a valid method of dealing with a prevalent problem concerning the body. Men state that it would be nice to raise the self-esteem and get rid of issues causing suffering on a womans body. For example, a woman who has put a stop to the process of giving birth would feel good after undergoing a breast argumentation. Such would make these women feel younger and ready to get back to their normal lives and wear what best pleases them. In contrast, there is evidence of toxic masculinity from men who think that women should remain comfortable in their situation unless they are doing the surgery for medical reasons. They claim that there are other means of looking good, for example adopting proper eating habits, adjusting one's lifestyle and working out a lot. This argument does not consider some natural features like a big nose, which cannot be altered by exercise.
According to this image, men are people who initiate processes while keeping their emotions to themselves as such is what entails being a man. In another case of an online dating site Tinder, men exercise a lot of toxic masculinity. They treat women in the most uncouth way. However, the site allows screenshots of women who have been in the hands of these kinds of men and are ashamed or people give out their views concerning the conversation. Mens thoughts are evident of focusing on how to lure women, for example like having the best pickup lines. Consequently, this site showed that most men visualized the womans body as an object for sexual gains, an evidence of toxic masculinity (Hess and Flores 2016, 8). Women, in turn, are viewed to have only two primary responses, which include silence and witty responses. The silence is the best policy of fighting; showing that they are not afraid and they can handle the insensitive responses they get from men.
Education and Women
Gender and culture go to the point of women and education. However, in other areas, women are believed to be less witty and get limited chances for education. According to Brickell, the children were taught the traditions of the society, and observed the ways of their elders while quiet and were not supposed to question a thing, (2011, 454). To be precise, the girls are expected to perfect their act of home care and to be prepared for their future lives with their husbands. In contrast, the boys get more chances to go out of their villages and seek out a better life. They are seen as the only source of hope, for the family.
However, this has been changing with the younger female generation demanding equal chances in the society as their male counterparts. In fact, such is prevalent in the urban areas, but the problems persist in Khmer culture. Women are getting more vocal, fighting for their rights, and demanding better treatment. Women are getting chances to explore a bigger world where they can choose a career of their choice, even if it was previously regarded as for men only. It is said that when parents educate a girl, they educate the whole society.
In this image, it would be argued that the society should encourage girl power. They should change the perception of a woman staying at home and view her as a change agent.
This refers to the gender roles across history which give the man a dominant position and making the woman the subordinate. For example, the man is expected to get a job and feed his family while taking care of the bills, while the woman should be the homemaker. Such a pattern has been observed even in the school setting where the boys bully girls. Such also dominate in criminology. According to research, boys or men conducted most of the crimes. Consequently, it is common for a man to be suspected of a crime compared to a woman. There have been arguments on the problem of hegemonic masculinity concerning who represented it. Such has been argued concerning the problem of realness. This concept does not thoroughly describe the aspect of power. Based on Budgeon, the social theory has emerged as one of the major causes of gender asymmetrical responsible for masculinity and feminist (2014, 322). Hegemonic masculinity is deemed as the force responsible for the maintenance of masculinity and feminism. This concept explains power from the experiences of women rather than the structural design of women subordination.
In this picture, the characteristics of men are represented as creatures who are unemotional, unresponsive, aggressive, non-nurturing, forgetting the concept of being good fathers and providing for their families from their wages. However, this concept has changed over time. Women are becoming more independent and unwilling to be assisted by a man. Significantly, they have shifted from homemakers to working-class individuals.
In conclusion, it is evident that there has been a shift from the old cultures to the new adoption of modern views on culture and gender. Though the views of a man still matter nowadays, they are not as concrete as they used to be. There is life for a woman rather than the cultural expectations of getting married and taking care of their husbands. These factors have been of many effects on the actions of a modern woman. The move raises the voice of women to be heard, and the country cannot claim to be successful when women have not yet gained their total freedom.
Brickell, K., 2011. We dont forget the old rice pot when we get the new one: Discourses on Ideals and Practices of Women in Contemporary Cambodia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 36(2), pp.437-462.
Budgeon, S., 2014. The dynamics of gender hegemony: Femininities, masculinities and social change. Sociology, 48(2), pp.317-334.
Connell, R.W. and Messerschmidt, J.W., 2013. Hegemonic masculinity: rethinking the concept. Rethinking the concepts, 21(1), pp.241-282.
Hess, A. and Flores, C. 2016. Simply more than swiping left: A critical analysis of toxic masculine performances on Tinder Nightmares. new media & society, p.1461444816681540.
Askmen, n.d. What are your thoughts on cosmetic plastic surgery? r/AskMen. [Online] Available at: <https://www.reddit.com/r/AskMen/comments/2l635t/what_are_your_thoughts_on_cosmetic_plastic_surgery/> [Accessed October 25, 2017].
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