Flavin, Francis. "Native Americans and American History." (2004).
Flavins article offers a depiction of Native Americans and their history from the colonial times through the twentieth century. According to Flavin due to historiography shifts in America, the history of Native Americans has created delusion due to the varying views and interpretation from interested groups. However, the Smithsonians National Museum which was opened in 2004 has attracted the attention of Indians as well as non-Indians making the history of Native Americans to flourish despite the challenges and limitations it had faced in the past. Native Americans were viewed in an increasingly sympathetic manner. Most of the writers and filmmakers displayed them as oppressed minority victimized by imperial conquest.
However, after 1960, the influence of Native Americans became increasingly critical of European Americans and the United States government. The wave of revisionism due to the variance of past and evolving history has made historians to blend the best of the old with the new to produce more nuanced and thoughtful scholarship. According to Flavin, the result has seen Native Americans produce some first-rate Indian histories. For instance, in the last few decades, the number of the historian of Indian descent has grown enriching the American Indian history with a voice from the natives. As a result, the first-hand native accounts has increased which includes textbooks, and other general overviews. Today historians are building on the versions of those who came before them, therefore, presenting several opportunities for future scholarship.
Alexie, Sherman. "This is what it means to say Phoenix, Arizona." The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven (1993): 59-75.
Sherman in his article, This is what it Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona uses Victors hardships in life to account for what it meant to be an Indian in America. Sherman starts by bringing into light the suffering victor was going through in his life. Victor had just lost his job in the Bureau of Indians Affairs when he learned that his father had died of heart attack in Phoenix. Due to financial difficulties, Victor and his father had stayed for several years without seeing each other and had only talked via telephone once or twice. From Shermans description, it shows that though Victor was working, he used to earn little just to sustain himself. Due to the close ties between the father and son Victor had to look for means to travel from Spokane to Phoenix to give his father a sendoff.
According to Sherman, Victor turned to the tribal council for help, but they could only afford one hundred dollars which were not enough even for a plane ticket. Therefore, he approached Thomas, an old friend although they had not talked to each other for years. Thomas knew the suffering Victor was going through and though everyone including the Indians despised him, he decided to help Victor. People were surprised to see the two talking to each other an indication of division among Indians. The two boarded a plane to Phoenix and sat next to a white woman. As the woman twisted her body, Victor approached her, but Thomas wanted to stop him as he did not want any trouble due to the rift between whites and Indians. All this time Thomas stood by Victor through his hardship, but they never mended their friendship because victor feared that his friends would turn against him. However, they made a deal that victor would stop and listen to Thomas story at least once if he came across him telling his stories somewhere.
Shepherd, Deborah J. "AIM: The American Indian Movement from the 20th to the 21st Century." Popular Anthropology Magazine 3.1 (2012): 42-49.
Shepherd journal describes the rise of the American Indian Movement (AIM) and their undertaking in a 20th and 21st century. The movement was founded in 1968 as a protest movement but later developed into something more significant especially to its Indian participants. The American Indian Movement was initially meant to condemn the fishing treaty against the preservation of Indian cultural heritage. Later AIM grievances expanded to incorporate police harassment, slum housing conditions, high rate of unemployment, poor public education and insufficient welfare assistance.
According to Shepherd, AIM works to ensure that native groups regain rights they were granted in the United States treaties. For instance, the urban focus policy fights for the plights of men who immigrated to cities in search of livelihood after their tribes were terminated under states jurisdiction leaving them impoverished. The self-determination and rights advocates for maximum participation and involvement of Indians in federal programs and services. However, the welfare of Native Americans was achieved through struggle and vital confrontations such as Alcatraz and Wounded Knee II. However, AIM met its objective and had taken a firm political stance with the aim of restoring the Indian culture among the native tribes.
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