Dyscalculia has become a major issue the world we are living. It involves difficulties in arithmetical operations and interpretation of natural numbers. It is mostly involved where Mathematics is concerned. It is also mainly participating in the school-level based arithmetic, where the people involved are not unintelligent but they face difficulties when interpreting the mathematical numbers. It is clear that dyscalculia is caused by some impairments of the part of the brain that is involved in Mathematical operations and therefore making it difficult for the affected person to interpret arithmetic operations clearly. A research carried out has indicated that 4-6 percent of the worlds population involves the people affected by dyscalculia. This shows that a given number of people face Mathematical disabilities. In general, dyscalculia is associated with arithmetic disabilities which at many times are permanent in the affected individuals.
It is also clear that through an analysis carried out by different persons affected by dyscalculia, most people experience inborn mathematical disabilities which are experienced since the birth of the individual. In such a situation, to change or train the person to acquire the school-level based arithmetic skills since the job is permanent. The second type of dyscalculia involves originally well and good mathematicians learning this problem in their childhood age. This issue may also crop in the child permanently. This kind of dyscalculia, which is referred to as the acquired dyscalculia may also occur in a persons later life due to brain injuries or stroke. This mainly affects a larger part of the brain involved in arithmetic operations leaving the person in a more difficult situation. This type of dyscalculia affects the person to a point whereby they are unable to solve simple Mathematical operations such as addition as simple numbers, where the characters goes to an extent of even counting their fingers (Borsel et al. 2317-6431)
Symptoms of Dyscalculia
Generally, a significant number people affected by dyscalculia face poor number sense. Number sense mainly involves how mathematical numbers work. Therefore, these people face a lot of difficulties because numbers are the essential components used in the learning of Mathematics. The persons are not able to interpret and work with these figures in the day to day activities and therefore it is very possible for them to find Mathematics to be very frustrating.
Signs of Dyscalculia in the Lower Level of Learning
The lower level of learning in our situation involves the pre-unit children and the primary school children. It is not very popular to find children with dyscalculia playing games that involve counting of numbers. This also includes all the games where arithmetic concepts are required. This is because the problem is very persistent to them and therefore, tries to eliminate Mathematical concepts where possible in their life. The same children face difficulties in counting pure numbers. Mostly, they skip numbers as they count. This is because they are not able to remember all the numbers. It is very similar to find children of their same age counting all the numbers with a lot of ease. The problem of counting is also involved when the children are assigning numbers to given objects or group of objects. The primary cause of the counting problem is associated with the child being unable to recognize and memorize Mathematical number symbols. Number symbols are of more importance in Arithmetical operations and therefore, without the knowledge of number symbols, Mathematical operations become difficult to solve. These children also face problems in recognizing number patterns and therefore cannot understand and sort particular shapes and sizes. In addition, they are unable to apply number systems in real life situations. They cannot connect numbers what is existing. For instance, the child can face difficulties in recognizing quantities, like two mangoes, three oranges, and others. The child is unable to assign the right portion to a given number of objects. It is also very clear that the children face more difficulties in the recording of mathematical calculations in books. It is easy to find these kids recording different characters from the ones provided. The situation may worsen as the child grows.
Children in primary school level face difficulties in coming up with solutions to mathematical problems. They are also unable to solve the operations. Others are more affected and therefore cannot tell the time even from viewing from a clock. It is also difficult to recognize some operation symbols like addition from multiplication, and division from difference symbols. They are also unable to apply the symbols in solving mathematical operations which at sometimes is characterized by the counting of fingers.
Signs of Dyscalculia in Higher Level of Learning and Adults
It is also possible to find adults experiencing dyscalculia. It is also important to differentiate college and university students inability to solve operations from dyscalculia. Some activities involving basic mathematics and calculus may appear more difficult the students due to a misunderstanding of the formulae and hence the inability to come up with a solution. Generally, adults facing dyscalculia have symptoms such as the failure to apply Mathematical concepts in real life. This may include the inability to approximate total costs of items, difficulties in counting money, and all other fields where money matters are involved. Many of these people stay confused and can lose their way anytime. It is tough for them to recognize directions. They also face problems in matters where the estimation of quantities is required. One can fail to have a simple estimate of applying amounts like ingredients in simple food preparation recipes, for example, salt. In addition, the affected persons are never confident about themselves in any issues involving measurements, distances, and time bound activities. Most of them are unable to manage their time properly and at most circumstances, they fail to work with time deadlines (Price and Ansari 1-15)
When it comes to high school students, it is very clear to recognize this signs. Many students feel anxious whenever issues to do with numbers are brought to their attention. Mostly, they are unable to interpret information conveyed in diagrams. This includes data in graphic representation, quadrilaterals, circles, angels and other mathematical diagrams. The process of grasping the data portrayed may be very long and may also end up capturing nothing from the whole content. Such persons are also unable to interpret data in instruments such as reading information in rulers, interpreting measurements in thermometers and other instruments. Therefore, it is clear that dyscalculia is not only experienced by the children but also the adults in the society. It is independent of gender or age. Furthermore, the same problem may also arise due to poor teaching offered and the social status of the persons.
Other Disabilities Associated to Dyscalculia
It is true that many people face other difficulties associated to dyscalculia. All are mathematical challenges. For instance, dyscalculia involves particular mathematical learning inabilities which are mostly characterized by counting and reading problems. Acalculia, which is a major mathematical failure, is evident where the involved is unable to solve any arithmetic or mathematical operation no matter how simple it may be. Acalculia is most characterized by the persons inability to count. Pseudo Dyscalculia, on the other hand, involves the persons emotional tensions. The person is bright and intelligent and can pass well in Mathematics, but due to negative attitudes and peer influences them to develop a failure attitude towards Mathematics. This type of a person can be motivated through private talks and counseling in order to help them regain their ability. The last disability involves General Learning Disability in Mathematics. In this situation, the person affected has more problems not only in Mathematics but also other learning fields. This is the most affected person because unlike the other disabilities where Mathematics is involved, the person faces more difficulties in all other education areas. General disability is characterized by the average performance of the individual throughout. The people at many times do not undergo frustration in studies or life because it is their inherent nature which is tough to change.
Moreover, Dyscalculia may occur due to other factors. Persons who were born immaturely may also be affected. Drinking mothers during pregnancy may also increase the risk of their unborn baby suffering from Dyscalculia. It is also evident to people with a fragile X syndrome, epilepsy, and the Turner Syndrome. There is no general cure for Dyscalculia. Most appropriately it can be prevented early in advance in the growing children through offering them quality education, and emphasizing that those who are affected and noted and taken more concern in order to eradicate the situation in them. It is also possible to highlight individual studies to those much modified in a view to regain their learning ability. Public awareness can also assist educate expectant mothers and the other women on the importance alcoholic substances during pregnancy. It is also paramount for those with brain injuries and other complications to seek medical attention early in advance in order to control the disability before it persists (Butterworth 455-465)
Borsel. J. & Britto. M.M. & Dias. M.A.H, (2013). Assessment of the awareness of dyscalculia among educators: Audiol Commun. Res. vol.18 (2317-6431). Retrieved from (http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S2317-64312013000200007&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en)
Butterworth. B., (c. 2015). Developmental Dyscalculia, (455-465). Retrieved from; (http://www.mathematicalbrain.com/pdf/HMC26.PDF)
Price. G.R., & Ansari. D., (2013) "Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments," Numeracy: Vol. 6: Iss. 1, Article 2.(DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1936-46126.96.36.199). Retrieved from: (http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/numeracy/vol6/iss1/art2)
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