Ball, et al., (2016). Longitudinal qualitative study where Ten participants (10) were interviewed on their perceptions and experience in T2DM. Longitudinal Qualitative study. No intervention From the study, participants reported that they tried to improve the dietary behaviors, but they were restrained by the requirement to maintain a healthy diet thus experiencing negative emotions towards the disease. Additionally, they experienced confusion regarding the conflicting advice given by different personnel including the health professionals and family members on dietary intake to manage T2DM. The participants reported limited engagements with healthcare professional although they frequently felt the need. Level VI
The evidence is based on single descriptive and qualitative study.
Chomko, Odegard, & Evert, (2016). Observational evaluation of 64 participants in a Diabetes self-management education class concerning their change in A1C and Weight. Retrospective observational study. Participants were enrolled in a Diabetes self-management education (DSME). The establishment of the DSME classes had an increased enrollment that enhanced significant decrease in A1C and weight in patients taking part in the classes that were observed at three and six months after enrollment. Patients who were newly diagnosed with diabetes reflected a greater A1C decrease. Additionally, patients diagnosed with diabetes 10 years, participants under insulin prescription and those with depression also had a reduced A1C and weight. Level II
The evidence is based on a well-designed randomized controlled trial, i.e., diabetes self-management education.
Cuevas & Stuifbergen, (2017) Survey investigation of 120 patients diagnosed with T2DM using questionnaire to explore their cognitive ability by assessing perceived memory, executive function, diabetes self-management, and quality of life. Cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study. No intervention There was a positive association between executive function and self-reports of dietary adherence and blood glucose monitoring. The SDSCA analysis indicated a low adherence to diet and exercise where participants showed an average of three days a week adherence to a healthy diet with < than two days a week of exercise. Additional analysis indicated that memory ability determined the quality of life while executive function significantly predicted A1C levels. Level VI
The evidence is based on a single descriptive study where survey investigations were used to explore the variables.
Esposito, et al., 2013 Literature review to evaluate the management of hyperglycemia in T2DM concerning the clinical evidence and uncertainty. Literature Review No intervention According to the literature review, the result findings indicated that there was a need to develop a patient-centered treatment plan for people with T2DM by considering patient's profile (phenotype), and with an objective of providing safest possible glycemic control. Not all patients with T2DM benefited from intensive glycemic control and therefore the need to have flexible routines of treatment with diabetes drugs to achieve the patient's glycemic goals. The literature also indicated that it was unknown whether personalized diabetology could improve the quality of healthcare practice. Level V. The evidence is based on literature review of qualitative studies.
Ball, L., Davmor, R., Leveritt, M., Desbrow, B., Ehrlich, C., & Chaboyer, W. (2016).
Understanding the nutrition care needs of patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes: a need for open communication and patient-focused consultations. Australian Journal of Primary Health,22(5), 416. doi:10.1071/py15063Chomko, M.E., Odegard, P.S., & Evert, A.B. (2016). Enhancing Access to Diabetes Self-
management Education in primary Care. The Diabetes Educator, 42(5), 635-645.Doi: 10.1177/0145721716659147
Cuevas, H., & Stuifbergen, A. (2017). Perceived cognitive deficits are associated with diabetes
self-management in a multiethnic sample. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders,16(1). doi:10.1186/s40200-017-0289-3
Esposito, K., Gentile, S., Candido, R., De Micheli, A., Gallo, M., Medea, G., & Ceriello, A.
(2013). Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: evidence and uncertainty. Cardiovascular diabetology, 12(1), 81. doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-81
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