Unethical treatment on individuals, infringing on their social rights are prominent. Cases such as racial profiling, gender discrimination are present all over. (Mackinnon, 254)
Mackinnon describes equality is all about treating people fairly without infringing in way on any of their significant social rights. Anything short of such is discrimination and would be considered unethical treatment. (Mackinnon 256)
Egoist and utilitarian are two normative theories that best illustrate this. Egoist theory majorly focuses on an individual and that his/her actions are justified if it maximizes good for the individual. Utilitarian theory on the other hand deems an action right if it leads to the satisfaction of the greatest population. (Jess Kroll, 2017)
Utilitarianism seeks to maximize on good by minimizing the negative outcome and keeping the greatest number of people happy. It emphasizes that the most ethical action is one that has the greatest positive impact on the greatest number of people placing the emphasis on the whole as opposed to the individual. It results in a great sum of benefits as compared to its harms based on the outcome and not intentions. (Jess Kroll, 2017)
In egoism, benefit for one outweighs the consequences placed on others. Actions are considered ethical if the one taking the action is benefiting while any the consequences on the others is a side effect and not considered of great importance as those of the individual. It also intimates the individual has greater value than all others thus ethical to act on ones self interest even if it potentially harms others. (Jess Kroll, 2017)
The high courts January 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade granted women the constitutional right to terminate their pregnancies. (David Masci and Ira C. Lupu, 2017)
From utilitarianism perspective, abortion is viewed with regards to the amounts of happiness pleasure and pain it entails to the parties concerned. It is considered a burden to give birth to a baby who will be treated because the child was born out of rape. It will in the long run lead to unhappiness in the society, the mother. This is a case where not exploring abortion is bringing the greatest unhappiness in the society. Abortion decreases the number of children who not happy and fell that they are a burden to the society and also unhappy parents. (David Masci and Ira C. Lupu, 2017)
In egoism, the morality of abortion is solely upon the mother and is in line with her personal interests. If a mother is not ready to offer her time in raising of the baby then abortion will be considered moral as it serves her own self interest. Abortion is only considered immoral if it does not serve the personal interest of the mother like if she will not be able to cope with the guilt resulting from it. She considers whether abortion will be of considerable advantage to her in the long run. (David Masci and Ira C. Lupu, 2017)
Utilitarianism is favorable to ethical egoism. Egoism fails to consider the consequences on the greatest number of people thus only serving personal interests. Utilitarianism is more favorable than ethical egoism in the manner with which it handles abortion. Utilitarianism takes into consideration the happiness of everybody in the society. By considering the interest of the greatest number of people then weighing the options, one is most likely to come up with the most acceptable solution to the issue. (David Masci and Ira C. Lupu, 2017)
Kroll, Jess. The Differences Between Utilitarianism & Ethical Egoism." Our Pastimes, 22 July 2017, ourpastimes.com/differences-between-utilitarianism-ethical-egoism-8662427.html.
David, Masci and Lupu, Ira C. "A History of Key Abortion Rulings of the U.S. Supreme Court | Pew Research Center." Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, www.pewforum.org/2013/01/16/a-history-of-key-abortion-rulings-of-the-us-supreme-courtMacKinnon, Barbara. Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues. Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2009
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