1. Pure research
Pure research means the same as basic research. Pure research is scientific in nature whose aims include:
predicting different phenomenas, and
improving diverse scientific theories for better understanding
Basic research are applicable in both empirical science and natural sciences
Often, the persons involved in basic research seek to establish scientific knowledge that helps in predicting phenomena. The information found in the basic research helps in attaining full knowledge of nature (Monette, et al., 2013).
2. Applied research
The focus of applied research is to develop techniques and technology.
Applied science depends on basic research to utilize technology to techniques to change ascertain outcomes.
The aim of applied research is to develop new techniques and technology.
The theories that result from applied research help researchers to change the results of a natural phenomenon.
The research, in this case, curiosity motivate research (Monette, et al., 2013).
3. Experimental research
Experimental research is systematic in nature and follows specific procedures for the attainments of results.
Scientific researchers engaged in an experimental research uses different types of variables, set up a control experiment, and observe the changes in the different kinds of variables.
The experimental research uses different types of research designs to test and establish the causes of different kinds of processes (Labrenz et al., 2016).
3. Exploratory research,
Exploratory research focuses on a problem that has less attention.
In this case, the researchers to know more about a problem that are new to many.
Exploratory researchers develop their priorities, define the boundaries of their definitions, and develop the best research design for the study.
The exploratory researchers determine the methods for collecting data and suitable research subjects (Larenz et al., 2016).
4. Descriptive research
Researchers use descriptive research techniques to describe a population under study.
The researchers involved in descriptive research aims at determining what a particular phenomenon is.
The researchers collect the descriptive data using methods such as survey methods and observation.
researchers seek to infer information from the descriptive data (Thomas et al., 2015).
5. Analytical research
Analytical research differs from descriptive research regarding the nature of questions that a researcher seeks to answer.
Most of the analytical researchers have an interest in establishing why different situations are the way they are and how they found themselves in a particular place.
Analytical researcher asks critical questions seeking to identify the truth.
The most question in this kind of research includes why, who, who and when. A descriptive researcher seeks to establish what it is (Thomas et al., 2015).
6. Diagnostic study
The diagnostic study involves a procedure that aims at determining the cause of a situation or a certain disease.
The study involves a close examination of a specific area in an individual.
The researchers in the diagnostic study may aim at determining the strength and a weakness of an individual or a specific situation (Redaniel, et al., 2015).
7. Historical study
A historical study is concerned with specific topics in the human history.
The topics of interest for history students are topics such as the study of religious groups, national experiences, and the development of both political and religious groups.
The history students consider the time of events and important figures that define a specific event (Redaniel, et al., 2015).
8. Primary data
Primary data is the information that the research collect directly from the field.
Primary data are specific to a particular research topic and project.
For example, a researcher seeking to collect primary data uses observation and survey techniques to collect data.
The researcher is involved in traveling and meeting people face to face to acquire the data. The collection of primary data is an expensive process (Beer, & Faulkner, 2014).
9. Secondary data
Secondary data is the data collected by someone on behalf of the user.
Secondary data are relatively cheaper to acquire than primary data.
Secondary data can be information collected for other purposes other than the intentions of the user.
The examples of secondary data include censuses, organization records, and information from the various departments of government (Beer, & Faulkner, 2014).
10. Covert Observation
Covert observation is a technique in research where the researcher joins subject of study and relate freely.
The covert observer does not allow the subjects to know of his status and the intentions for the interactions with the group.
The research participates freely in the activities of the subject under investigation (Pan, et al., 2013).
11. Overt observation
Overt observation is related to the covert observation because of they both involve free interactions with the subjects.
In the overt observation, the researcher reveals his/her status in the field.
In overt observation, the subject under study understands the intentions of the overt observer.
The researcher upholds the high level of honesty and avoids the possible ethical issues that arise during such kinds of studies (Pan, et al., 2013).
12. Halo effect
Halo effect is interference of an impression on research
For example, during the collection of primary data, the researcher interacts with reality in the field.
The interactions between events, phenomenas and subjects of study in the filed create a specific impression in the researchers.
The impressions that one event creates on a researcher affects the opinions in a different area.
For example, a study in a particular place may influence the thoughts and feelings of the research towards a particular situation (Pan, et al., 2013).
13. Error off central tendency
Central tendency in research means an average of a distribution.
Errors of central tendencies occur because of the diverse views of the raters.
The judges of an event assign scores to average subjects irrespective of their difference in performances.
Errors of central tendencies occur due to divergent perceptions and individual biases. Errors of central tendencies are often repeated because they are unnoticeable (Ab Rahman at al., 2017).
14. Correlationional research
In a correlation research, the researcher has more than one quantitative variable that participates in a research.
The work of a researcher in a correlation research is to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables in the participation list.
The interest of the researcher is to determine the pattern of scores in different variables in participation (Ab Rahman at al., 2017).
15. Research validity
Validity is a term that defines whether the research is sound or not sound.
Research validity focuses on the validity the research design, method of study and data.
For example, the researchers may seek to determine the validity of the research by establishing whether the findings reflect the actual phenomena.
The desire in this case is to determine whether the claims are true (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 2014).
16. Research reliability
A research is reliable if the tool applicable for the assessment produces consistent results.
In some situation, the results of a study are retested to establish if they are consistent.
Often, researchers establish the reliability of the results by administering the similar test is a predetermined duration to set specimens (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 2014).
17. Inductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning refers to a logical process that involves combining different kinds of premises to conclude issues believed to be true.
Often, inductive reasoning utilizes facts to reach a conclusion on matters on common lessons.
The indicative reasoning is applicable when forecasting, and in predicting a behavior using facts (Fosse et al., 2015).
18. Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning differs from inductive reasoning because the former relies on assumptions.
In the deductive reasoning, a conclusion results from a consideration of multiple premises that are assumed facts.
The assumptions from the different premises provide clues for a conclusion (Fosse et al., 2015).
19. Naturalistic Observation
The naturalistic observation is common with the social scientists and psychologists.
The researchers go to the field and observe the object of study within their neutral environment.
For example, in lab study, the subject behaves uniquely.
As a result, it is important to observe how the subject under study to the different conditions (Fosse et al., 2015).
A, What is questionnaire?
Questionnaires are sets of questions printed on papers for purposes of a statistical research or a survey. They are research instruments containing some designed questions that help gather information from the different respondents (Patten, 2013).
Discuss advantages of using questionnaires as methods for data collection.
Questionnaires help in gathering:
Large amounts of information.
Questionnaires are practical
Information collected are reliable and valid
The information gathered is scientific and can be quantified with ease
The information collected in this manner allows for comparison with other research (Patten, 2013).
c. Disadvantages of using questionnaires as methods for data collection
It is hard to understand the changing moods of the respondents during the process of filling the questionnaires.
The data lacks the validity
It hard to determine how the respondent thought while filing the questionnaires
The responded my lie and the researcher cannot tell
The response may be out of context
The respondent may understand the questions differently (Patten, 2013).
Can you list down the unethical practices in questionnaire designing?
Respect of persons
Respect of communities
Ab Rahman, A., Ahmad, J., Yasin, R. M., & Hanafi, N. M. (2017). Investigating Central Tendency in Competency Assessment of Design Electronic Circuit: Analysis Using Many Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM). International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 7(7), 525.Beer, A., & Faulkner, D. (2014). How to use primary and secondary data. Chapters, 192-209.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (2014). Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method. In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 35-54). Springer Netherlands.Fosse, N. E., Grahe, J. E., Reifman, A., Fosse, N., Grahe, J. E., & Reifman, A. (2015). Markers of adulthood subscale development: Comparative review and assessment of inductive and deductive psychometrics.
Labrenz, F., Wrede, K., Forsting, M., Engler, H., Schedlowski, M., Elsenbruch, S., & Benson, S. (2016). Alterations in functional connectivity of resting state networks during experimental endotoxemiaAn exploratory study in healthy men. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 54, 17-26.Monette, D. R., Sullivan, T. J., & DeJong, C. R. (2013). Applied social research: A tool for the human services. Cengage Learning.
Pan, S. C., Tien, K. L., Hung, I. C., Lin, Y. J., Sheng, W. H., Wang, M. J., ... & Chen, Y. C. (2013). Compliance of health care workers with hand hygiene practices: independent advantages of overt and covert observers. PLoS One, 8(1), e53746.Patten, M. L. (2016). Questionnaire research: A practical guide. Routledge.Thomas, J. R., Silverman, S., & Nelson, J. (2015). Research methods in physical activity, 7E. Human kinetics.Redaniel, M. T., Martin, R. M., Ridd, M. J., W...
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