The school and the family play a significant role in the provision of important factors that promote the development of youth. (Lerner, Overton, & Molenaar, 2015). During the elaboration of a child, the parents involvement determines how the child is brought up. Parental involvement determines the literacy levels in the child, especially on their home environments. The cognitive skills of the child are also improved. For instance, reading sessions of the parents and the child, playing games such as puzzles while at home and availability of reading the material at home. All these are associated with the early progression of academic skills in the child (Hornby, 2011). As the children get older, the parent-school collaboration gradually decreases. Despite this decline parent involvement is still significant. According to Brinthaupt & Lipka, (2002), Parent involvement has proved to promote positive outcomes for children in middle school and those in high schools.
Average Income to Needs Ratio during Childhood and College Degree Attainment
The likelihood that children who come from low-income families will not graduate from the universities and colleges are high. Growing up in poverty exposes the children not only to dropping out of school but also to various challenges like illnesses, overcrowding leading to poor housing, inadequate psychosocial stimulation, and insufficient resources to sustain their daily lives. Despite the adverse effects of poverty, there has been an increase in the levels of poverty. Little progress has been made in the fight against poverty and its effects on the education of children (Engle & Black, 2008).
Families with few are less likely to have adequate financial resources that are necessary for high-quality education in their early stages of life, college tuition or inheritance that are related to the particular household and their accumulated assets. Asset poverty is more prevalent than income poverty, and it has a correlation with the ability of an individual to graduate with a degree from college. Some assets that a household owns are a marker the overall economic security. (Shanks & Robinson, 2012)
Race and College Degree Attainment
The rates of unemployment and poverty rates have continually been on the rise. The most affected households are the African Americans. Disparities between the richest and the poorest African American too is greater than any other race. Due to the numerous discrepancies, the poverty levels are very high. Black families with more wealth have a greater parental expectation for a childs education attainment than other families with lower wealth. There is a link between the availability of cultural capital and exposure to various opportunities and activities and their educational outcomes. Referencing from Shanks & Destin, (2009), the household wealth has a positive correlation with parental expectation for the childs education. There is also a relationship with the actual outcomes of education. There are positive educational outcomes. It is also important to note that the high level of wealth is the only determinant of positive results of the child. Attitudes and behavior of the African American households like having a savings account and minimizing the amounts of debts also improve the chances of better outcomes for the children.
There is a rising aspiration to earn a bachelors degree among the post-secondary students. This is a reflection of the new economic reality. This growing desire is common across racial and ethnic groups. A large number of low-income students have been noted to have the greatest increase in ambition. However, the low-income students are disadvantaged because of lack of quality education. Their chances of completing a four-year college degree are therefore decreased substantially. One of the concerns in the current world in education is addressing the gap between the rising aspirations and college completion to achieve a degree. The rising costs of college education and declining value of financial aid contribute significantly to the number of students who do not graduate from college (Roderick, Nagaoka, & Coca, 2009).
Education of Head of Household and College Degree Attainment
In agreement with Eric F. Dubow, (2009), the parental educational level determines the children's educational and behavioral outcome substantially. When parents have exhibited a pedagogical and occupational success, the familys socio-economic status and the childrens intelligence is notably improved. The effect of this in the children is their educational and professional success is likely more than those of parents who have not achieved the same. The children have a higher chance of attaining a quality education and subsequently better achievements. The childrens behavioral judgment is also improved. For instance, children born to parents with an achievement oriented behavior like obtaining advanced degrees, advocating a strong work ethic and daily reading develop a guiding belief that success is to be valued, pursued and achieved.
Socio-Economic Status and College Degree Attainment
Children that have lived in poverty stricken areas and areas where racial segregation is still a concern usually have no access to quality education. They attend poor performing schools leading to a high rate of dropout from school. They are therefore unable to continue with their studies and thus cannot achieve higher education and degree. In South Africa, the socio-economical differential has played a significant role in the educational outcome (Berg, 2008).Poor schools could not prosper because of the inherited socio-economic status and racial segregation. Despite the fact that some particular individuals with high socio-economic status were also in some of the poor schools they could not generate good performances.
Berg, S. V. (2008). How effective are poor schools? Poverty and educational outcomes in South Africa. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 34, pp. 145-154. doi:www.elsevier.com/stueduc
Brinthaupt, T. M., & Lipka, R. P. (2002). In Understanding early adolescent self and identity : applications and interventions (p. 126). Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, (c)2002.
Engle, P. L., & Black, M. M. (2008). The Effect of Poverty on Child Development and Educational Outcome. In P. L. Engle, & M. M. Black, Annuals of the New York Academy Science (pp. 243-256). California,USA: Lancet.
Eric F. Dubow, P. B. (2009, July). Long-term Effects of Parents' Education on Children's Educational and Occupational Success: Mediation by family Interactions,Child Aggression , and Teenage Aspiration, 55(3), pp. 224-249.
Hornby, G. (2011). Importance of Parental involvement . In G. Hornby, Parental involvement in childhood education : building effective school-family partnerships. (p. 11). New York: Springer,.
Lerner, R. M., Overton, W. F., & Molenaar, P. C. (2015). Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science Theory and Method. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc 2015.
Roderick, M., Nagaoka, J., & Coca, V. (2009). College Readiness for All: The Challenge for Urban High Schools. (Springs, Ed.) The Future of Children, 19(1), pp. 185-210. Retrieved from https://muse.jhu.edu/article/270378
Shanks, T. R., & Destin, M. (2009). Parental Expectations and Educational Outcomes for Young. Ann Arbor , USA: Springer Science and Business Media.
Shanks, T. R., & Robinson, C. (2012). Assets, economic opportunity and toxic stress: A framework for understanding child and educational outcomes. Economics of Education Review, 154 -170. Retrieved from www.elsevier.com/locate/econedurev
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