It is important to stress that it is crucial for the fields development phases to uphold a tight procedural co-ordination so as to combine all contributions from areas of competence such as field study area, production technology area, and drilling area (Goebels 34). All these areas of competence constitute the viability study preparation for project development. Furthermore, the construction of a field can prolong for several decades and will later stop when revenues fail to cover all the operating costs. But, by carrying out projects of secondary recovery, the fields lifespan can be lengthened when the injection of water and gas into the project of tertiary recovery takes place.
Gas and fluids extraction at Haynesville removes one or even more constituents from the extracted products to make it ready for consumption. The major components that are removed in order to meet the set standards for consumption include heavy hydrocarbons, CO2, N2 and H2O.
In an argument on melting of specific materials in some subducted zones of Haynesville, volcanic arcs are used as samples to explain the circumstances under which they melt. The basaltic ocean crust comprises hydrous materials such as amphiboles created by hydrothermal shifts as seawater oozed through hot, broken, new ocean crust at the mid-ocean ridge Stamm (Stamm 23). The pressure rises as the ocean sinks deeper into the mantle. The pressure becomes bigger at a depth of around 100km beneath the surface. This procedure liberates water gradually that seeps upward into the overlying wedge of a hot mantle. This lowers the temperature causing in partial melting of ultramafic mantle rocks to yield mafic magma Igneous rocks, which did not make it to the surface before forming lie beneath active volcanic arc (Ewing 89). The Haynesville Shale appears to have stretched and compressed pores and grains. These stretched and compressed pores and grains essentially decrease the shales velocity, since pores of these shapes are adherent; this decreases the rock moduli, in accordance with the inclination of the pores relative to the direction of wave proliferation and polarization. Moreover, shales are essentially anisotropic as a result of the inherent arrangement of the clay platelets or even the arrangement of breakages, cracks or pores. As a result, for the purposes of modeling and comprehending the gas shales, more complicated methods should be employed.
The depositional surrounding is perceived as a deep and relatively anoxic and euxinic controlled basin, which was covered by carbonate segments and siliciclastic shelves in the upper Jurassic. The depth of the reservoir ranges between 3000 and 4700m. The principal mineral components of it include clay, calcite and quartz, with a gas capacity approximated at over 2.8 * 1010 m3. It has a very low permeability, with a porosity ranging from nearly three to fourteen percent. Haynesville has characteristically appeared to display vertical transverse isotropy. PVT Information and Production Rate
The pinnacle of the Haynesville is basically regarded as being on the grounds Louisianas side, and majority of the horizontal drilling has put its attention on it. An ideal well of Haynesville costs from 7 Million US Dollars to 8 million US Dollars to extract and finish, and this is essentially dependent on the lateral length together with the price of right as well as the services of pumping pressure. In terms of PVT, we find that among the primary properties of the Haynesville Shale is being over-pressurized, and this has played a part in the facilitating of increasing initial rates of production.
Most first or initial horizontal wells in the Haynesville was characterized with initial twenty-four hour rates of production, which was 20 MMcf/d more than the usual rate, and this is regarded as being so high in accordance with the standards in history. The feature of high pressure also enables the reduction of initial costs of lifting in the Haynesville, because the wells are not pumped as faster.
On the contrary, the increased pressure also plays a part in enhancing the reduced rates during the first year; this can be to the level of 85 percent in the region. Those that work on the wells assume that choking back of the early rates of production in the area aids in the increment of the projected eventual recoveries of those particular wells. The extraction of dry gas in the area increased from essentially zero in the year 2008 to a high of 7.5 Bcf/d during the year 2013. However, this later reduced by 50 percent to about 4.0 Bcf/d during the year 2016. The production of gas in the area was 6.8 Bcf/d in based on the figures that were released by the US. Energy Information.
The Haynesville Share ranks as being among the largest eccentric gas fields within America. In addition, it is among the deepest, whereby it has wells that go up to more than ten thousand feet under the earth surface. This is an unusual depth, which gives it more pressure leading to early pressures on the reservoir of nearly 12, 000 psi. This amount of pressure is unusually high among the common shale gas reservoirs, and needs distinctive handling or treatment. A PVT solver can be employed for the purposes of determining the features of gas at up to the pressures of reservoir.
Goebels, L. Cairo Field, Union County, Arkansas. Cairo field, Union County, Arkansas. American Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. v. 34. 2015.
Stamm, (nd) Geologic Unit: Haynesville., National Geologic Map Database. United States Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Ewing, T. Review of Late Jurassic depositional systems and potential hydrocarbon plays, northern Gulf of Mexico Basin. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions. v. 51, pp. 85-96., 2016.
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