Essay Example on Feminists Perspectives and the Most Preferred One

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Feminists views have formed an integral part of the study and discussion of criminal justice. It is in light of the deeply entrenched gender stratification despite crafting of progressive reforms. An example is the identification and illustration of crime prevention and offender rehabilitation study. The discussion tries to highlight on some major feminist teaching dating from past times to the present.

Regarding that, it should be of note that feminism isn't a particular context but rather involves many aspects combined (Hooks, 2000). Feminism, in general, refers to an assembly of diverse theoretical approaches each trying to explain and bring to light the harassment that women go through (Hooks, 2000). The feminist movement began in the UK before obtaining mass appeal around other parts of the world. Given the feminist lobby, some viewpoints have emerged that aim at expressing the whole ideology. Among them is liberal feminism. It advocates for womens equality of opportunity and freedom of choice. Those who participated in the movement focused on drafted legislations and ensured they upheld rights and freedom of women. It is in consideration in areas such as the socialization process to avoid developing of an inferior status mentality.

The other evaluation is on radical feminism. It highlighted the downfall of society as primarily brought about by male superiority through bestowing of immense privilege (Wormer, 2014). Advocates of the principles believe that the fundamental relations in society came about through male control and domination of labor finance and women's sexuality. All that culminated to the arising of a patriarchal society. The situation is critical as it likely increases the risk of domestic violence and homicide among women. Marxist feminism is the other outlook of feminism. Proponents of the belief notice that female oppression arose from male dominating every social institution thereby culminating to inequality. Based on the perspective, gender and class differences obtain a close relation. According to the ideology, the capitalism structure benefits and thrives from paying minimum wages to women in corporations and industries.

Socialist feminism is the other point of view of feminism. It neither classifies gender nor class in any form. However, supporters of the ideology believe the two relate to building a better society (Wormer, 2014). In other words, it combines both radical and Marxist ideas. Postmodern feminism, on the other hand, is a critic on the thought that women should get treated as an interest group. Promoters of the belief reject the reality of the existence of justice. Black feminism is another fundamental standpoint. Exponents of the theory argue that social change is brought about by raising consciousness. On top of that, there is Latina feminism that unites to enforce women subjugation instead of supporting them.

The most preferred form of perspective is the liberal feminism. It emphasizes on the empowerment concept. The ideology recognizes the ability of women to make choices based on alternatives they see ahead. It also relates to race, gender, and class that strengthen the approach to social work.

2. Gender Specific Programming for Girls and the Interlocking Nature of Race, Class, and Gender

Gender specific programming for girls refers to coming up with tailor made solutions for women specifically those in correctional facilities. According to Ann Casey Foundation, the practices should come up with policies that deal with the systematic inequalities that lead to confinement of girls and different pathways as compared to their male counterparts. Women need more attention due to concerns relating to their image and biology more than men. Engaging and interactive approaches are effective ways to absorb them into airing out their problems. One cant neglect the importance of availing information on gender, sexuality, and health that is fundamental in the establishing of positive relationships.

On the same subject, training on gender specific programming for troubled girls is one of the ways to enhance change in the justice system (Goodkind, 2005). Moreover, program development and workshops offer a channel to convey the difference between girls' patterns of offense as compared to those of boys. Nesteby, the coordinator of Iowa gender task force, highlights some essential components of gender specific programming. They cater for girls' needs and put into consideration factors that could be of benefit in offering treatment intervention and a healthy physical environment.

Some of the provisions include ensuring the safety of girls from any form of abuse. It is to safeguard them from demanding friends and family and enable them to concentrate on their needs. The other is preparing programs that address racial, ethnic and other cultural factors (Wormer, 2014). It is because girls of color experience different gender issues as compared to their white counterparts. Improving relationships is the other component (Wormer, 2014). The programs enable girls learn assertiveness, expression of emotions and maintaining relationships with limits. Addressing of trauma is the other factor. Many girls in custody have encountered either physical or sexual abuse. Therefore, there is need to address the matter to heal past wound.

In understanding the pattern of female delinquency and the criminal justice, the subject of gender, class, and race emerge as intertwined concepts. Similar to the relationship between personal and political interaction, so is that of race, class, and gender. Interaction with women of color highlights concerns brought about by the inequality. One is deemed deserving of protection and respect based on the three factors plus whether they are a threat or burden to the society. Therefore, to overcome the stereotypes, a multidimensional way of thinking is inevitable to broaden the level of comprehension.

Discussion of the three configuration attributes is fundamental in understanding the impact of many crisscrossing prejudices. The knowledge could help one realize the role a female offender plays in occupying several categories simultaneously. The realizations closely relate to the concept of intersectionality that explains the effect of membership in various groups is synergistic and not additive (Wormer, 2014). There is the use of a feminist theoretical concept in trying to come up with a black feminist criminology which aims at intimating spouse abuse in African American women. Cruelty on the woman and her reaction carefully depict the effect of their status in a patriarchal and racially structured society. The experiences are of importance and worth taking into account as they represent individuals least valued in the spectrum relating to gender and race.

The three features also provide a role in also determining the role that women played before their incarceration. The reason for the research is to uncover differences in crime paths between battered and non-battered African American women and white women. Predetermined cultural gender roles are to blame for the crime rates among women and violence in relationships (Irwin & Chesney-Lind, 2008). The model highlights differences in behaviors between milieu and significant evidence of how women avoided falling into similar paths.

3. Effect of the Three Strike Legislation on Poor Women, Blacks, and Hispanic

The Three-Strikes Legislation is a law providing longer sentences on repeated offenders versus those who commit similar crimes for the first time. The legislation didnt receive a proper backing till the early 1990s in various states. From there on, other territories picked up and crafted the law in accordance with the level of occurrence of crime in their areas (Shepherd, 2002). Using prisons as a guiding framework, we can come up with a representation of a nations health and level of civilization. Therefore, a comparison of female treatment historically enables us to establish the connection between punishment and the patriarchal structure of the society.

During early days of the prison history, women similar to men experienced the inhumane prison conditions. Confinement was in crowded quarters. In particular, African American and the poor women were disproportionately taken into custody in many parts. Passage of strict and punitive legislations in Sothern states made prisons become filled with blacks almost overnight. Feminists consolidated their efforts in trying to address the incarceration of women and the exploitation they underwent. Numerous transformations and reform agenda took place including better designing of the buildings. What is more, crafting of programs reflecting cultural values and norms for women was fundamental in improving their welfare.

In consideration of the Three-Strikes Legislation, it unfairly targeted the minority and poor women. Race played a crucial role in the entire process during the following period. Chivalry for females figured into the picture which was used to segregate an African American and a white lady (Wormer, 2014). Women used to get sentenced for minor crimes such as sexual offenses, drunkenness, and unwanted pregnancies. The progressive era came by but still upheld the cottage system of justice. The civil rights awareness and protest period ushered in a duration where the minority demanded attention to their pleas. Compassion got advanced to women convicted of killing their husbands in self-defense but not political detainees.

Then, there was the period of retrenchment on social service thats in existence to date. Women of color were the ones who were adversely affected by the order dealing with drug sentencing laws (Wormer, 2014). The command proposed a large crack down on cocaine users that were mostly thought to be from the inner cities. Besides, they were to receive harsh and punitive sentences as they got viewed as a burden to the society. The laws hence condemned the weak and vulnerable to constant monitoring by the states which lead to an increase in their arrests. The situation is evident in regions such as Canada where native women are disproportionately locked up.

Privatization of prisons has made the entire scenario more complicated. Instead of channeling resources to enable substance abuse treatment and subsidizing house to prevent crime, commercial interests collide with offenders. Many of the women incarcerated have reported more than one instance of drug addiction problems and serving for nonviolent drug offenses. The full state of affair condemns the vulnerable to jail sentences due to unavailability of assistance that makes them slide to the misdeed. From the discussion, implementation of the Three-Strikes Legislation seems more of a witch hunt (Helland & Tabarrok, 2007). Minority and women of color are at an increased risk of experiencing its wrath due to economic, social and psychological challenges they face. Certainly, there is a need for the change of legislations to come in place. Furthermore, assistance and guiding of the group would be of great benefit.

4. Definition of Rape and the Various Types of Rape

Rape refers to sexual intercourse that includes both psychological coercion and physical force. Forced sexual intercourse comes in many ways and can include attempted rape on both genders in addition to gay and heterosexual rape. However, the definition of rape has been reconceptualized to integrate a variety of aspects. The ordeal usually leaves painful scars on the victims and maximises the level of shame. Despite taking the matter to court in search of justice, the entire process worsens the situation (Koss & Harvey, 1991). It is due to the accusations and labeling women face thereby necessitating t...

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