Many America receives different types of service through multiple government programs simultaneously. Low-income earners benefit from both Medicare and Medicaid services. The population is divided into two where 17 percent qualify for Medicare and 19 percent qualify for Medicaid program (Gluck and Hanson, 2001). However, for Native Americans there are entitled to receive service through HIS may also be given Medicaid if they meet income protocol set. To Americans who are 65 years and above qualify for Medicare. Additionally, American who is eligible to these programs has private supplemental insurance services. The government has established this program with the aim of attaining consistency in quality enhancement for insurance to both patients who attend private and public facilitates.
Medicare program: These programs provide health insurance to all American who meets social security demands, aged above 65-year critics and those who have the disability or suffering from old age stage. Medicare is entirely supported by federally finance and cover completely private sectors. In 2002, all most 87 percent benefited from this program. Medicare program carries a heavy burden of those suffering from chronic illness.
Medicaid program: Medicaid focuses mainly on poor people and who require health care services so that they can attain healthy growth that will benefit, health care sectors needs. They concentrate on those meet requirements such as pregnant woman, low-income parent earners and disabled adults. Medicaid is funded by the federal government jointly with the states, but federal government contributes larger portion 50 percent.
According to Jon Witt his book he describes different approaches that relate to sociological perspectives such as, conflict approach, Functionalist Approach, and integrationist approach. These are factors that integrate all issues relating to patient welfare.
The Conflict Approach: These concepts concentrate on issues of inequality in the quality of health and doctors services toward patient (Weitz, 2013). Health quality differs from one country to another, therefore; creating inequities within a social class, race and ethnicity and, gender lines. Due to inadequate health care and it makes more difficult it for people in disadvantaged social backgrounds to get well swiftly.
Conflict concept acknowledges effort made by doctors in past years to control, guide the practice of medicine, and define various social problems uncounted by patients. The physicians have contributed both positively and negatively. On the positive contribution is their belief they are the best in medicine professional that help them make correct diagnose and treat people with the medical disorder. The On a downside, doctors have failed to identify social problems as medical disorders and monopolizing the treatment of various diseases, their financial status will improve.
According to Talcott Parsons, he has stated that Functionalist Approach is conceived by the functionalists approach that emphasizes good health and proper medical care is a fundamental aspect of societys ability to function. Unhealthy society will impair people able to perform the role. To this regard, good health is vital for healthy functioning of society. The patient relationship with doctors is hierarchical, and a patient must follow every single step toward recovery.
Several examples illustrate functional theorys criticism. The medical establishment has made the alternative medicine to become increasingly popular but so has its critics. Physicians may negatively under take medical issues as inadequate, ineffective and dangerous but also recognize. That use of these alternatives is financially harmful to their practices. Another example that illustrates conflict theorys criticism is Eating disorders.
Symbolic integrationist approach: This approach emphasizes on health and illness of individual is the social construction. The integrationist approach is essential to therapeutic relationship between patients and health care professionals. Doctors still manage the situation to showcase their professionalism in patient knowledge. Critics argue that typical integrationist approach imply that no illness have objective reality. Critics also state that this concept neglects the vital issues toward social inequality among ill individual. Despite these critics, integrationist still reminds us that health and illness possess objective reality subjective and as well.
Unequal distribution of money, power, and resources can create social structures in society. In America, it is evident we witness the abundant living more than poor because the wealthy can access modern health facilities and better doctors, Compared to the poor who are not able to access better hospitals and nurses because there have adequate funds to cute for their daily needs. From the book of Jon Witt, it is clear that in United States economic and social policies lack enough power, income and this has affected the access to quality and affordable education and health care.
My personal belief about the current American healthcare system is that they are making critical diagnosis and treatment of diseases that are affecting families among many Americans. It is proven that racial and ethical minorities families are impacted by the lower quality of care than nonminority. Medicine institutions have reported an inequality treatment toward racial and ethnic families.
Another social belief is culture: this concept differentiate race, ethnicity has been given as better explanation from different health behaviors and health outcome. Culture can be defined by various unique values, beliefs that are jointly associated with acceptance and adoption of health issues.
Weitz, R. (2013). The sociology of health, illness, and health care: A critical approach (6th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Wadsworth
Parsons, T. (1951). The social system. New York, NY: Free Press.
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