The science associated with the delivery of instruction and the development of academic competencies remains a critical concern in education. Methods used to enhance the implementation of designed strategies define the extent to which the likely targets are attained. Over the years, scholars have been keen to establish the implication of instruction and intervention regarding the different dimensions of learning. Special programs meant to cater to the needs of the learners are associated with the implementation approaches that are designed based on the target group and expected outcome. Nevertheless, the objective of providing relevant knowledge and technical assistance to enable the educators to achieve the implementation targets remains the central consideration. The approach to learning that identifies the student at risk as well as those considered as disadvantaged has seen the development of theoretical frameworks and policy guidelines meant to realign the implementation processes. The emphasis on a special group of learners is associated with the elaboration of the Response to Intervention (RTI). Based on the framework, the learners who depict the need for excellent assistance are expected to undergo a preliminary but thorough instruction-based monitoring to ascertain the point at which special education is required. Such considerations also include the establishment of the baseline for accountability (Barntt et al., 2004). Therefore, based on this account, the 2001 act of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the 2004 act of Individual with Disabilities Education Improvement (IDEA) formed the foundational shift to the understanding of Response to Intervention.
Moreover, the concept of Response to Intervention has been viewed from different dimension based on the stakeholders. The implementation process has been associated with the educators as the implementers and questions have been raised regarding what extent they impact the outcomes. On the other hand, the steps to be followed when seeking to achieve effective results has attracted several scholars. For example, according to Lawrence (2007) pointed out how essential it is to follow a specific procedure when undertaking learning interventions. Cases of struggling students is a common scenario in any learning environment. The process of identifying those affected involves the provision of instruction to learners in a regular setting. Once the struggling student has been identified, the delivery of instruction to smaller and specific groups enhances the attention that each learner receives. The enhancement of the frequency of teaching to the struggling student s is meant to determine their progress. However, this process has been subjected to assessment regarding the effectiveness of implementation of the strategies intended to enhance the experience of special learners. Although the perception of Response to Intervention is considered for the struggling student, learners without disabilities can be included in the framework when seeking to achieve a specific change in education.
Background of the Study
The onset of the measures undertaken to enhance the experiences of learners has been founded on the framework defined by the IDEA 2004. The challenges initially associated with the approach to assessment and the selection of the special needs led to the establishment of guidelines where Response to Intervention have been based. In the United States, the children who are referred to special education undergo a thorough assessment to determine and ascertain the criteria for referral. Worth noting is that before the enactment of the IDEA framework, implementers in education were facing the dilemma of identifying the children possible special needs in education based on the sociocultural factors; however, the introduction of IDEA was based on the learning disabilities and challenges (Mesmer & Mesmer, 2008). The foundational assessment became the metric tool that defined the extent to which the needs of a learner were urgent. The subjection of the potential special learners to regular evaluation within an educational setting has been associated with the ability of the educators to determine the specific challenges of the student. One of the advantages of such considerations has been the development of the intervention measure, which is expected to embed the dimension associated with the specific needs.
The use of assessments such as listening to comprehension, reading and writing expressions, and mathematical calculations are some of the known methods used to determine the needs of the students. The planning and formulation of the intervention strategies depend on the nature of the requirements; however, the existing frameworks define the extent to which the outcome can be influenced through the implementation process. The variability between the academic scores and the intellectual abilities define whether learners were classified as those with disabilities in reading or math. Such measures were used to establish recommendations for further assistance to attain the desired learning outcomes. Based on this assessment the vulnerable population could be easily determined, which called for a multidimensional approach to the implementation of the intervention measures. Although factors such as the poverty levels, institutional race tendencies, teacher-to-learner ratio, and the competence and experience of educators have been assessed to determine the interrelation with the overrepresentation of the vulnerable populations (Aron & Loprest, 2012). One of the concerns of the success of the Response to Intervention measures is the role of the stakeholders and the diversity of the special needs learners. However, scholars have carried various assessments to determine the reliability of theoretical postulates as well as the instructional paradigm that is characterized by sustainability and efficiency (Bianco, 2010).
Moreover, the use of the performance data has been widely adopted by stakeholders to determine the extent to which the progress inform the implementations. Scholars have shown that effective Response to Intervention is associated with the implementation of the exact strategy and design of the supportive programs and in line with the specified disability or the special needs (Bianco, 2010). On the other hand, the role of the educators when planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating the progress regarding the framework for intervention is another dimension subject to evidence-based assessment. It is clear that the implementation of the Response to Intervention is subject to the level to which the educators understood the design and the dimensions included in the corrective methods. When seeking to improve the performance of the learner, the knowledge of the needs of the students is not enough to define the outcomes. Having a clear understanding of the elements that characterize the designed approach to mitigation measures will increase the cognitive abilities of learners over time (Daly et al., 2007).
Problem Statement and Justification
Response to Intervention is a viewed as a multidimensional concept that included a multi-tiered cross-sectional examination and assistance offered to students with learning challenges. One of the critical concern regarding this concept is the research that has carried out to examine the different perspective of Response to Intervention. Cummings et al. (2008) argue that Response to Intervention is a proactive model emanating from IDEA 2004 to assist the struggling students in their learning environment. However, a critical analysis of the existing literature reveals a tendency to dimensions that have shown significant interrelation of the variables under investigation. The reaffirmation of both the IDEA 2004 and NCLB 2001 called for the use of Response to Intervention mechanisms before learners are referred to special education. Scholars have emphasized the need for the understanding of the impact of the stakeholders on the process of assisting learners with cognitive challenges. One of the areas that have received the attention of researchers is the perspective of the educators in line with the need for Response to Intervention. According to the National Center on Response to Intervention (2012), several schools have implemented the strategy and have depicted various results. The objectives of such measures have been the need to reduce the rate of referral of learners to special programs. Nevertheless, the centricity of the success of Response to Intervention in schools depends on the perception of all the stakeholder. The educators play a significant role in designing the assessment criteria and carrying out the role of continuous evaluation of the students to determine changes made (Fuchs & Mellard, 2007). Therefore, they remain the central players regarding the objective of reducing the number of learners with challenges who are referred to special education programs.
Moreover, the implementation of the Response to Intervention initiatives has been associated with the school climate where the manner in which educators teach, learn, and associate with one another as well as with the students determine the change witnessed during and after the implementation (Bean & Lillenstein, 2012). Studies have shown how the use of adopted student assessments and scientific-based measures to enhance the process of change among learners with cognitive difficulties. Evaluation regarding the role of educators indicates that they are in the frontline in line with the implementation needs. However, the focus of the scholars has been on the role of regular educationists and special needs teachers. Worth pointing out is that studies have been centered on learners with disabilities; however, factors such as language competency and math achievement have been subjected to limited evaluation to determine how educators impact the outcomes of the process associated Response to Intervention. Although many studies have emphasized on the implication of educators such as administrative support, time management, and student performance assessment (Dupuis, 2010; Wilcox, Murakami-Rimalho, & Urick, 2013), little emphasis has been given to the dimension regarding the perception of the educators in line with math achievement. A more focus analysis that incorporates the evaluation of tier 1 3 in an urban elementary school is needed to strengthen the existing literature regarding Response to Intervention.
Definition of Terms
Response to Intervention is a considered a comprehensive framework that is used to initiate an in-depth assessment of students to determine their vulnerability and implement measures meant to enhance their performance and experience. In this regard, the administrators are empowered to provide necessary resources to assist the teachers to achieve the desired results for each assistance offered to learners (Benner et al., 2011). The objective of such approaches is to minimize the number of students referred to special education. Learners with special needs are considered as a student who is unable to read effectively, speak, or respond to scientific tests correctly; therefore, they require additional assistance to attain the necessary scores in line with their level of learning. Whenever learners have been assessed and met the criteria to be categorized as in need for excellent assistance, they are referred to special education. The form of learning is associated with a more advanced process of learning that enable a student with special needs as well as physical disabilities to achieve the best learning outcomes with ease (Clarke et al., 2014). In this case,...
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