Theories in the field of the nursing act as landmarks that give direction concerning how nurses should undertake their daily activities. It is, therefore, a fact that theories are fundamental in nursing practice. Several important theories have brought significant transformation in nursing care. The transcultural theory that is presented by Madeleine Leininger is one of the critical theories in this field. In the United States , it is predicted by the United States Census Bureau that by 2042, there will be no racial, ethnic group that will be holding the position of the minority, and the more than a half of the united states population will be majority group members. Currently, the society is developing a culture that is diverse, and nurses are supposed to be the specialist when it comes to offering culturally congruent care patients in the settings of healthcare. Appreciating Leiningers culture care theory of universality and diversity theory continues to be one of the broadest and the oldest concept to bring the understanding of related and varied culture internationally.
Madeline Leininger is recognized as the originator of Culture Care Universality and Diversity theory. She is also identified to be the discovery of the research method which is known as the transcultural nursing or enthonursing with the theory reverberating throughout various cultures globally. Rather than the theory being viewed from the usual medical view, Leininger is recognized as the first nurse to come up with a theory on human care from a global view. According to Leininger, transcultural nursing is identified to be one of the integral areas of study with the practice putting focus on the similar cultural care beliefs, values, and practices of groups or individuals of different or similar culture. This is for offering universal nursing care practice to promote the wellbeing of individuals when it comes to facing human conditions which are unfavorable.
Tran cultural Nursing theory by Madeleine Leininger involves the understanding and knowing various cultures concerning health illness caring practices, values and beliefs with the goal of offering efficacious and meaningful nursing services to individuals about their health illness context and cultural values. The theory focus is based on the fact that various cultures share various sickness and health values, beliefs and pattern of behaviors. This theory focuses on how to remove the cultural barrier that makes some patients to shy away from hospitals or respond to treatment after longer periods. This essay describes the process of selection, description, application of rationale, evaluation of challenges and trends, and possible application of this theory in nursing practice.
Major concept of the theory
It is important to understand the major concepts of the theory to bring efficiency in understanding the theory. Care is to offer assistance to others with anticipated or real needs in an effort of improving human condition of concern or even facing death. Culture refers to shared, learned and transmitted beliefs, norms, life ways and values of the specific group or even an individual that is guiding their decision making, thinking, patterned way of living and even their actions. On the other hand, cultural care universality is identified as a universal care or even similar meanings that are realized among various cultures. Social and cultural structure dimensions involve factors that are related to political, legal concerns social structure, religion, educational patterns, legal/political interests and use of cultural values and technologies ethno history that influence cultural responses of human being s with the context of culture(Leininger,2006). Cultural care maintenance or preservation refers to nursing care activities that offer help to individuals from particular cultures to use and retain significant cultural care values about health care condition or concern. On the other hand, cultural care negotiation or accommodation is identified as the as the creative nursing actions that assist individuals from a particular culture to negotiate or adapt with other individuals in the community of healthcare with an effort of attaining shared goals of an optimal clients health results in a designated culture.
Part 2: Theory Rational for Application to Practice
I selected the Madeleine Leininger's Theory of culture care: Universality and Diversity for clinical practice with various reasons. With the diversity that existing in the patient population, the theory is significant in understanding that patients are coming from various cultures which possess various beliefs and values. Showing that one practice can be accepted in one culture or society and the same culture can also be rejected in another different culture. The fact remains that patients have the right of getting the care based on their beliefs and cultural values. For such a reason it is of utmost significance to promote cultural competence, and the major responsibility of nurses is to offer culturally competent holistic care in improving the outcome of patients. According to Leininger (2006), culturally congruent care is identified as the knowledge decision used in knowledgeable ways to meaningfully and appropriately fit the beliefs, cultural values and clients life ways for their well-being and health, or to prevent disabilities, illness or even death.
The practice of transcultural nursing theory come in hand by addressing the cultural dynamics that impact the nurse-client relationship .since the theory focuses on such nursing aspect, a theory was needed to explain and study on the provided nature of care. Notably, the primary reason why Leininger creatively came up with such a theory of culture care was as a result of universality and diversity with the purpose of offering culturally congruent holistic care. What is surprising about Leiningers theory is the fact that it provides care measures that are in harmony with a group or a persons practices, values and cultural beliefs.In most cases, culturally congruent care is possible when the client together with the nurse creatively came up with a design for a different care lifestyle for the customer's well-being.
Notable, nurses who value and understands culturally competent care are in a position of impacting positive changes in the healthcare practices from clients of different cultures. When it comes to sharing of cultural identity, it is significant to consider the principles and the knowledge of transcultural nursing principles and concepts. Caring is the core of nursing, and culturally competent nursing care can only take place when the client values and beliefs are skillfully and thoughtfully included in a nursing care plan(Montgomery,2010). Nursing guides of a culturally competent nurse offer an optimal and wholistic culturally based care. Through this practice, the client is also provided with the opportunity to take of themselves and others through a supportive familiar and meaningful cultural context(Montgomery,2010). Expansion and continual improvement of modern technology and other general science and nursing knowledge are integrated into practice in case they are appropriate. In the current health care performance, nurses tend to face unique cultural diversity as a result of the increasing number of refugees and immigrants. Commitment to practicing and learning culturally competent care offers a reward and much other great satisfaction to individuals who are capable of providing wholistic supportive care to all the patients.
There exist various specific assumptions that are inherent in the transcultural theory that offer support in the theory premises. The assumptions are identified as the philosophical basis of culture care: thats the universality and the diversity theory, they add meaning, clarity, meaning and the depth of the general focus to come up with a culturally competent nursing care. Some of the assumptions that arose were that caring is significant for well-being and health, growth, healing and growth. On the other hand, the nursing central goal is to offer service to human beings in illness, health and if dying. It is also identified that cultural care values, practices, and beliefs are impacted by the world language, view, as well as spiritual, religious, political, social, economic, technological, educational, environmental and ethnic historical factors. Lastly, culturally beneficial nursing care can only take place when the value of cultural care values, patterns, or expression are used effectively and are known and knowingly by the specialist who is offering the care
Part 3: Evaluation of challenges and Trends
The Madeleine Leiningers Transcultural Nursing Theory has great cultural implications in the nursing setup. Provision of efficient and meaningful nursing care is the core objective of any health care providers. On the other hand, different people originate from different cultures that require them to do things in a variety of ways. This difference in culture makes provision of nursing care quite challenging given the fact that each culture would want their patients to be treated differently. This theory provides the path to avoiding this challenge brought about by cultural differences.
The greatest moral implication of this theory is mainly found in dealing with patients from different faiths in the nursing set up. According to the theory, it is important for the nurses to understand different cultures to treat their patients in the most exemplary way according to their culture. This helps in ensuring that every patient within the nursing home feels appreciated and well taken care of in the hospital. A good example is in the situation of giving birth. The nurses are obliged not deal with every woman the same way since doing that would be greatly unethical. The only way to be ethical is to try and treat every woman according to her cultural moral and religious beliefs. This is the advocacy of this theory, and it helps to make a nursing setting favorable to every patient who visits. This implies that the hospital condition would be sticking to great ethical standards(Alligood&Tomey, 2006).
This theory is substantially applicable in a multicultural context. The fact that the nurses would appreciate every patients cultural beliefs and religious standards make the hospital context conducive for every patient. For this reason, therefore, patients from different cultural and ethnic context would not shy away from visiting a healthcare due to the fear of lacking treatment that suits their culture(Maier-Lorentz,2008). The best to achieve this would be by assigning the patient to specific nurses who understand their culture. For example, in a multicultural context patients would be required to provide details about their cultural beliefs as they register at the reception. Using these details, they would be assigned to caregivers who best understand their culture. In this manner, every patients cultural, moral and religious expectations in a hospital environment would be met, and they would leave satisfied by the service they receive. In fact, the outcome of such segmentation would great influence on the number of patients visiting the hospital and most importantly, the outcome of treatment the patients and satisfaction by the care offered.
Social, political and economic issues
The issue of social inequality is one of the greatest concerns in nursing care that is considered when applying this theory. Social inequality mainly arises due to the social exclusions and sometimes poverty. Exclusion of a particular group of people due to their social status contributes immensely to this issue. The theory...
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