Professional judgment entails the making an informed decision by a specialist in their fields of expertise with the influence of the knowledge and experience in the area. Non-professional judgment, on the other hand, involves decision making without expertise in that particular area. Professional judgment differs from an unprofessional judgment in that in the making of professional judgment; the specialist has to adhere to the law and all ethical considerations. Professional decisions must also be adequately exercised, legally and for the appropriate reasons. It is applied in situations that are unique and arrived upon on case-to-case basis. Also, it is mandatory that a professional decision is reached upon based on practical wisdom. A non-professional decision, on the other hand, could leave out elements which are not apparent but could impact on the meaning of the decision, rendering the decision a wrong choice. Another feature that differentiates professional judgment from non-professional judgment is that a professional judgment has to be well documented and the specialist involved should be able to come to the defense of the decision made if called upon to do so. The non-professional judgment does not follow the same guideline as professional judgment.
Functionalism is a view of the minds state. It alleges that states of the mind such as belief are comprised mainly by their functional purpose. It is primarily concerned with the efficient functioning of the brain via its organization. States of the mind are realized in several levels as a functional role identifies. They can be made manifest in different systems provided the system carries out the proper functions. Analogous to computers, the brain processes inputs to give behaviors. A particular state of mind will dispose one to a specific action, for example, the pain will make you grunt. New public managerialism refers to the ideological belief that professional managers are valuable, with the concepts and processes they utilize. It combines ideology and knowledge on management to firmly ground itself in the society and organization to render employees, civil society, and owners incapable of making decisions. It is associated with hierarchy, control, ideological belief in the importance of strictly managed organizations, and accountability and measurement. New public managerialism would, therefore, entail all these but involving the public.
Unjustified monopolistic practices or setups come about as a result of managers being left to make all the decisions. The different shareholders that are, employees, civil societies, and owners are deprived of any decision-making roles. The professional managers are therefore the sole contributors to the decision-making process, hence monopolistic practices. Self-congratulatory or self-legitimizing is promoted by the overemphasis put on the importance of a tightly manage organization professionally. The professionals think themselves too important because of this belief by the society on their importance. Professions could end up serving the needs of a capitalist system. The capitalist system production and the sustaining of the relations of production. The overemphasis on productivity is a result of the pressure on professionals to deliver a profit for the organization. The issue is manifested in situations where other factors such as customers/clients needs are second to an organizations desire to make increase their profit margins. The elitism that reinforces the class system is seen in instances where only those at the top can make decisions probably because of their experience and expertise. Those below are made to feel left out in decision making. Exclusionary occupational closures are affecting the market of opportunity; working against free, efficient openly competitive markets is also manifested in some professions. The manifestation is in the situation where only specialists are allowed to make decisions in a particular field. The increasingly high costs of services provided in core professions healthcare, law, and education in what is termed as reinforced services as a problem to occupations are seen in situations where the professionals increase costs without regard to the people in need of the services.
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