The Four Main Sources of Measurement Error May Negatively Impact the Results of a Face-to-face Interview

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George Washington University
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What are the four major sources of measurement error? Illustrate by example how each of these might affect measurement results in a face-to-face interview situation.

There are numerous forms of measurement errors that may negatively impact results obtained from a process of data collection and analysis. The four primary sources of measurement error that may affect the results obtained from a data collection and analysis process such as a face-to-face interview are; respondent errors, situational factors error, the measurer errors, and the instrument errors.

The a-face-to-face interview is a data collection method where interviewers directly ask respondents questions with the intent of getting more information that would aid in their process of research (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016, p.119). It is true that respondent errors are errors that are caused by the respondents. In a face-to-face interview, it would be errors resulting from the interviewed. The errors may be caused by the interviewed knowingly or unknowingly and would affect the accuracy of the results obtained since the information gathered untrue thus causing a miss- understanding.

Situational factor errors are the forms of distractions that make the process of information gathering not to be conducive, (Fowler, 2013, p.12). Distractors such as noise, extreme temperature, numerous interruptions and the presence of a third party may make an interviewed person uncomfortable thus leading them to give inaccurate information which negatively affects the process of data collection in a face-to-face interview. Measurer errors are the various forms of mistakes that a researcher may make while collecting data. The errors made may be such as miscalculation, the omission of vital information, and miss-interpretation of information (Bryman & Bell, 2015, p. 211). In a face-to-face interview, a researcher may make such mistakes when they are tired, or they are trying to collect information from different people at the same time. Instrument errors are the distortion of information that occurs because of the defects of the devices utilized in the process of gathering information. In relation to a face-to-face interview, the use of poor quality instruments such as microphones, video recorders, and not including enough questions in the survey are some of the things that may affect the accuracy of the findings made.

The student has managed to adequately describe how the four main sources of measurement error may negatively impact the results obtained from a face-to-face interview. The student's use of various examples such as the example highlighting on how the difference in answering questions between women and men would lead to respondent error has aided in creating a better understanding of the four causes of errors. However, the student should have stated of the discussion by explaining the meaning of a face-to-face interview. This would allow readers to understand how the four mains sources of errors are related to face-to-face interviews. The student can also improve on the discussion by highlighting some of the measures that the researchers may take to ensure that they receive accurate information from the interviewed. In abiding by Ephesians 5:15, Therefore always be careful how you walk, not as the unwise but as wise men,' the researchers would be encouraged to be cautious while they conduct their data collection process. This will ensure they gather accurate data which will allow them to make the right findings and proposals.



Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2015). Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA.

Fowler Jr, F. J. (2013). Survey research methods. Sage publications.Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach.John Wiley & Sons.

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