The first research performed by Benetos, et., al (2015), is aimed at examining the significance of lowering blood pressures among elderly patients above 80 years in nursing homes and the interactions of systolic blood pressure and antihypertensive medications. This research utilized a longitudinal study whereby a nurse collected data such as morning BP between 0800- noon and evening BP from 1500 to 1800 through monitoring and examining participants at their nursing homes for 2 years. The result is that elderly with SBP < 130mmHg with antihypertensive medications are at higher risk for mortality. Strengths of this research are the large sample size and the extensive data of SBP collected. Some limitations are the observation design that limits definitive conclusions.
Falaschetti, E., Mindell, J., Knott, C. and Poulter, N. (2014) performed serial cross-sectional study that was aimed at evaluating the change in blood pressure management between 1994 and 2011 in England through the use of series of annual surveys to collect data. The outcome was that there was a decrease in the mean blood pressure for both male and female participants as well as a decrease in the chances of developing cardiovascular diseases. The strengths of this research are the large, randomized sample size, and the use of identical questions and surveys allows. A for limitations, there are no specific timelines but speculations as to what they expect to be the outcome in 2022 if the same method of blood pressure management is maintained.
The next research by Margolis et. al (2013) was conducted to determine whether an intervention of combining home BP monitoring with pharmacist case management improves BP control. Using experimental design, they did a 2-group cluster of randomized clinical trial of 450 adults with uncontrolled BP recruited from recruited from 14 692 patients. The outcome was that patients ho had home BP telemonitoring and pharmacist case management was able to follow instructions and better manage their BPs during a 12-month period. A strength is the randomized clustered trials and a limitation is that the trials are not blinded which creates an opportunity for researchers to have subjectivity.
The final research article performed by McManus, et al., (2014) determines the outcome of self-monitoring blood pressure and self-titrating antihypertensive medications. An experimental design and sample size of 552 patients were used for a randomized clinical trial whereby patients from age 35 years with at least a history of heart disease or diabetes self-monitored their blood pressure and self-titrate antihypertensive medications using an algorithm. The results were that these participants were able to self-monitor as well as self-titrate medications as long as they are given an algorithm to follow. The strength in this research is that and the limitations are that not all the participants showed up for the 6 and 12 months post assessments. The clinical trial was also unblended which gave a way for possible subjective opinion, and lastly a majority of the participants were whites from well to do backgrounds so this put a damper on the generalizability or variety of research participants.
Regardless of the topic of study or research, there can only be quantitative or qualitative methods used to complete the project. This research project will be conducted using a quantitative approach. This is so because the quantitative approach has the ability to provide objective data, which can be further used to make clinical judgments. Another justification for using the quantitative approach in the research is because this method is conclusive (Ostlund et al., 2011). This is evident from its ability to put a quantifiable value to a problem and provide details that make the research comprehensible. It is also possible to project the results in a population. In addition, this method enables the research collect its data using methods like audits, surveys that can be conducted online or through phone calls, and purchase transactions. Questionnaires and experiments are commonly used when gathering data for analysis. It is also easier to examine whether there a relationship exists between the various variables (Ostlund et al., 2011). After developing the hypothesis of the study, the quantitative approach helps confirm whether it is true. Presentation of data is made at the end of the study and is in the form of numbers or takes a statistical approach.
The research design for this study will be experimental design. The experimental design was chosen because it has the essential property of randomization and control group. Further, the process of conducting the experiment allows proper planning so that it can meet the expected objectives at the end (OCathain, Murphy, & Nicholl, 2010). Hence, all the right amount of data is taken as well as a considerable sample size so that all the research questions can be answered in the simplest and clearest way. The control helps compare the results from the main experiment so that they can remain reliable and valid. One of the variables in the research goes through a manipulation that helps determine what effect it has on the dependent variable. Hence, this process requires the analysis of data (Polit & Beck, 2008).
Rationale for using the selected research design is that it is prospective as it can objectively measure a notion, which gives the cause-and-effect as either true or false. It is more effective in the clinical setting as it helps provide an efficient relationship in a new finding, which might be a treatment or an intervention program. For instance, before bringing in a new medication in the market, it has to go through a thorough testing and valid evidence that it will indeed provide a solution to the public (Polit & Beck, 2010). The research and development team in the clinical field must test the drug using different experiments as a proof that it will have a calming effect when released to the market. The experimental design is focused and must meet all the scientific requirements so that it can qualify as valid and reliable.
One of the advantages of using the experimental design is that it enables the research elaborate and define the relationship among the variables. For instance, it is possible to draw out the cause and the effect between the two (OCathain, Murphy, & Nicholl, 2010). The dependent and independent variables are easily defined with each being valid in its own way. It is also easy to paste and replicate the results in another experiment if the variables do not change but conditions might be different. Despite the strengths of the experimental design, there are some limitations to it. For instance, since the research has a pre-determined outcome, it is easy to manipulate the experiment. In addition, the artificial environment created when conducting the experiment makes it impossible to come up with realistic results (Polit & Beck, 2008). It does not give the reasons as to why results come out in the way they are making it hard for its reliability.
The target population is the group, which the research has interest on as they collect the data and later draw conclusions from the analyzed information. For the purpose of the research, the sample population includes some of the nurses in both public and private clinics to understand the evidence-based practices in the healthcare facilities (Ostlund et al., 2011). The nurses have reliable information as they serve in their different capacities in the healthcare centers. However, since the hospitals are many and inclusive of both the public and private entities, the project will make use of probability sampling as random selection will take place. All nurses who will be the main respondents in the questionnaires stand an equal chance of being selected in answering the questions during the distribution process (Polit & Beck, 2010). The sampling procedure will put measures in place to ensure that the many nurses in the hospitals will be used. The research will use the systematic sampling procedure where every tenth nurse will be selected to answer the questions as their names appear on the list of healthcare practitioners extended to the research when collecting the information. This helps ensure that there is no form of favoritism or biasness when selecting the number of nurses from the entire list (OCathain, Murphy, & Nicholl, 2010). The research will maximize on the sample size as it has a direct effect on the results arrived at the end of the study. It also helps reduce the margin of error, which is the deviation in the opinions expressed by the respondents in the whole population.
Out of the entire population of about three hundred nurses, only about fifty of them will be used. This sample size will represent the entire population with half of them serving in the private hospitals while the rest working in public healthcare institutions. Some of the advantages of using the systematic sampling procedure is that it is simple and easy to select the entire sample from the entire population. Further, if the right procedures are followed, it is possible to come up with an accurate and reliable conclusion (Polit & Beck, 2008). One of the limitations is that the selected population might not represent the views of the entire population. It is therefore important for the research to come up with counter-measures that will help reduce this form of inaccuracy that might affect the results of the study.
Respondents will give their responses willingly and no form of coercion and threats will be used on them at any time (Ostlund et al., 2011). The questionnaires used to collect the information will not require the nurses to give their names or contacts, as they will be anonymous. This means that no private information or details will appear on the filling forms, which assures the respondents of their protection. They are also free to leave the procedure at any time they feel uncomfortable. The respondents are assured of protection from harm as they take part in the study and after the procedure is complete.
The research will help develop knowledge related to research and evidence-based practice as a basis for designing and analyzing research studies. The combination of the research design selected and the sampling method will help arrive at a conclusive and reliable results. Based on the assignment, some of the expected outcomes for the project proposal are new information that will contribute to the nursing practices in the medical field. Recommendations presented will be used by both public and private healthcare facilities as they improve the quality of services they extend to patients who require their services.
OCathain, A., Murphy, E., & Nicholl, J. (2010). Three techniques for integrating data in mixed methods studies. Bmj, 341, c4587.Ostlund, U., Kidd, L., Wengstrom, Y., & Rowa-Dewar, N. (2011). Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: a methodological review. International journal of nursing studies, 48(3), 369-383.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2010). Generalization in quantitative and qualitative research: Myths and strategies. International journal of nursing studies, 47(11), 1451-1458.
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