Technology Advances in Cellular Biology: Criminal Forensic Techniques

2021-06-07 19:41:52
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University of Richmond
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As technology changes every aspect of our daily lives, it is true that finding solutions to crime has emerged to be futuristic in all its advances. Ranging from retinal scanning to evidence chemistry tracking, criminal forensic technologies had advanced and helped in solving crimes that in the past seemed to be science fiction. With this forensic technique in hand, it is no doubt that this is the fastest growing field in the US (Montefiore, 2017). Agencies such as NCIS and CSI are real examples using the new forensic science technologies today. Various incredible forensic techniques are probably in use today, and that has significantly contributed to crime reduction in the society.New Technologies Used in Criminal Forensic Techniques

Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

In cases where broken glasses are involved in criminal activity, collecting all these pieces together is critical in gathering important clues such bullets directions, for of impact as well as weapons used in the crime (Montefiore, 2017). This is a high sensitive isotopic identification capacity as the LA-ICP-MS system can break the samples of glass into small sizes to their atomic structure. Then, forensic professionals match the tiny glasses on clothing into a glass sample from the crime scene (Keller, 2013).

Light Photography

Through the use of alternative light photography technology, a forensic personnel can quickly ascertain the extent of physical damage to a patient and thus make a difference between death and life of that patient. Light photography is the latest technology that can see the damage even before it is evident on the skin (Hayes et al., 2015). The technology uses cameras like Omni chrome that uses orange filters and blue light for the purpose of clearly identifying the bruising under the surface of the skin.

High-Speed Ballistics Photography

The most scientist does not recognize this tool as a solution in forensic sciences, but ballistics specialists make use of high-speed cameras in understanding how gunshots, glass shatters, bullets holes, and wounds are created. Anybody in the crime department can use this tool without any extra training (Hayes et al., 2015).

Video Spectral Comparator 2000

This is the most widely available crime forensic technique to both forensic scientists and crime scene investigators. This technology helps forensic crime investigators to have a view of a piece of paper and see and read the hidden writing, determine the origin, quality and lift indented writing (Plaue et al., 2014). Moreover, through the use of Video spectral comparator 2000, it is possible to conduct an analysis even if fire or water ultimately damaged the paper in a way that the unintelligible naked eye cannot see.

XFT Device

Gaming system has for long been used by criminal as they do not consider them as a possible place to hide the illegal data. Digital forensic professionals make use of the XFT as a ground-breaking forensic technique due to its ability to enable the criminal authorities to have visual permissions to the hidden files in the Xbox hard drives (Odell-Miller, 2016). The XFT device is used to record authorization sessions that need to be replayed in real time during courts sessions.

3D Forensic Facial Reconstruction

This technology may not be rated as one of the most reliable, but it is interesting and available to forensic anthropologists, forensic scientists, and forensic pathologists. 3D utilizes software where human remains are extrapolated to a physical appearance (Taylor, 2016).

DNA Sequencer

Most individuals know the importance of DNA experiments in forensic science labs. However, most individuals are not aware of what DNA Sequencers are and their usage. Most crime lab technicians and forensic scientists utilize DNA profiling to identify victims and criminals utilizing trace evidence like skin and hair samples (Saferstein, 2015). In the absence of hair and skin samples, more powerful Sequencers which allow them to test teeth and old bones to determine the particular ordering of individuals DNA nucleases and establish a unique DNA pattern that can assist identify that individual as a criminal or suspect.

Forensic Carbon-14 Dating

It is hard for archaeologists and anthropologists to ascertain the age of remains, but with the help of carbon dating, it is possible to identify the age of these unknown remains. The levels of radiocarbon have decreased over the last fifty years, hence it hard to use this carbon dating to determine forensic remains. Scientists are the only people that are left with access to Carbon-14 Dating tools (Hollien, 2013).

Automated fingerprint identification (AFIS)These technologies enable forensic scientists, police officers and scene investigators to easily and quickly compare an extensive virtual database and fingerprint at crime scenes. Moreover, the introduction of no-touch wanding and magnetic fingerprints enables police and investigators to get a perfect impression of fingerprints at a crime scene without contamination (Tokel, Inci, & Demirci, 2014).

Link analyses software Link analysis software is used by accountants to track down illicit funds and highlight strange financial activities in various financial reports. This software combines observations of customer profiling, statistics and inconsistent digital financial transactions to produce probabilities of illegal behavior (Montefiore, 2017). Forensic accounting is necessary to help interpret and understand forensic technology.

Risks Associated With Criminal Forensic Techniques

Forensic specialists are responsible for collecting and analyzing identified at crime scenes a significant activity in solving and processing crimes. However, this personnel is at the time exposed to various hazards (Tokel, Inci, & Demirci, 2014). Forensic technicians in most cases rely on chemicals to analyze evidence gathered. These chemicals are harsh and dangerous when inhaled or absorbed into the body skin. In addition, during the criminal forensic investigation, specialists frequently come into contact with weapons such as firearms that are used in the commissioning on crimes thus putting them in danger while handling (Dean & Palmer, 2014). Most of the work of forensic crime specialist is field-based where they gather evident. In most cases, they are faced with harsh environmental conditions like cold, rain, heat and damaging winds.

 

References

Kretser, H., Stokes, E., Wich, S., Foran, D., & Montefiore, A. (2017). Technological Innovations Supporting Wildlife Crime Detection, Deterrence, and Enforcement. Conservation Criminology, 157.

Kelty, S. F., Julian, R. D., & Hayes, R. (2015). The impact of forensic evidence on criminal justice: Evidence from case processing studies.

Keegan, E., Kristo, M. J., Colella, M., Robel, M., Williams, R., Lindvall, R., & Plaue, J. (2014). Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia. Forensic science international, 240, 111-121.

Odell-Miller, H. (2016). The Future of Music Therapy in Forensic and Criminal Justice Settings. Helen Odell-Miller. Envisioning The Future Of Music Therapy, 53.

Tokel, O., Inci, F., & Demirci, U. (2014). Advances in plasmonic technologies for point of care applications. Chemical Reviews, 114(11), 5728.

Dean, K. M., & Palmer, A. E. (2014). Advances in fluorescence labeling strategies for dynamic cellular imaging. Nature chemical biology, 10(7), 512-523.

Keller, P. J. (2013). Imaging morphogenesis: technological advances and biological insights. Science, 340(6137), 1234168.

Buckleton, J. S., Bright, J. A., & Taylor, D. (Eds.). (2016). Forensic DNA evidence interpretation. CRC Press.

Saferstein, R. (2015). Forensic science: from the crime scene to the crime lab. Pearson.

Hollien, H. (2013). The acoustics of crime: The new science of forensic phonetics. Springer Science & Business Media.

 

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