TCP/IP Concept - Essay Example on Computer Science and IT

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Harvey Mudd College
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The flow of communication at different levels and across the departments` in a hierarchical business follows four basic layers which are application layer, transport layer, network layer and data link layer. It is important to note that such flow of communication from the various organizational levels to an external party outside the organization

One thing which merits observing is that the communication between two PCs over the system through TCP/IP convention suite happens on the customer server. In essence, the customer asks for a service while the server processes the demand for the customer. Different fundamental layers enable data connection from the host to the client over the system. The four layers are;

1. Application layer

2. Transport layer

3. Network layer

4. Data link layer

Surfing the Web

Lets take an exceptional case to make the idea more clear. Consider how data flow when you open a site. The following figure shows how information flows throw each layer on the host machine when a website is opened.


Application Layer

This layer incorporates applications or procedures that utilization transport layer conventions to convey the information to the target PCs. At each layer, there are sure protocol alternatives to complete the undertaking assigned to that specific layer. In this way, application layer additionally has different conventions that applications use to communicate with the second layer, therefore, when surfing the web, an HTTP request is created and then transmitted down to the transport layer.

Transport Layer

This layer is a backbone to information stream between two hosts. This layer gets information from the application layer above it. Numerous conventions work at this layer yet the two most normally utilized conventions at transport layer are TCP and UDP.TCP is utilized where a dependable association is required while UDP is utilized as a part of instance of undependable associations

In this stage, the protocol TCP allocates additional information such as source port number or sequence number to the data from the top layer to ensure that communication stays authentic. For example, one can be able to trace down the data that has been sent and that which has been received.

Network Layer

The principle reason for this layer is to arrange or handle the development of information. By development of information, we, for the most part, mean steering of data over the system. The fundamental convention utilized at this layer is IP. At the succeeding network layer, IP attaches its additional information to the data transmitted from the transport layer. Such information enhances packet traveling across the entire network. Finally, the data link layer which is right below the network layer ensures that all the data conveyed to and from the physical media is conducted correctly. At this point, it is important to note that communication could either be authentic or unreliable. The information generated at this level moves on the physical media such as the internet and gets to the target machine. Where the website is hosted, which is the target machine, a similar sequence of communication takes place but in the opposite order (Badshah, 2015).

Data Link Layer

This layer ordinarily comprises of gadget drivers in the OS and the system interface card connected to the framework. Both the gadget drivers and the system interface card deal with the correspondence subtle elements with the media being utilized to exchange the information over the system. The data link layer is the place where the information is initially collected. At this particular layer that contains the information filled by the data link layer is interpreted and the entire data of transmitted to the upper layer which is the network layer.

From Media to the Webserver

In the same way, all the information that is passed up to the network layer from the data link layer protocol of the host system is interpreted and entire information is transmitted to the upper layer which is the transport layer, TCP. The information is read and processed in this layer and eventually transferred to the next upper layer which is the application layer. At this stage, the HTTP request generated by the host machine which is the browser is received by the website server (Tiwari 2014).

It is important to understand what happens to the information at each particular layer in the entire process of communication and the functions of each layer. Usually, at the host system, the TCP protocol adds more information such as sequence number to the entire packet released by this particular layer. Finally, at the target machine, when the packet of information arrives at this layer, the TCP records the serial number of the packet and transmits a confirmation that is collected as sequence number+1.

At this point, in case the TCP host does not get the confirmation from the target machine within the stated timeline, then it sends the same packet once again. As such, it is the responsibility of the TCP to ascertain that no single packet of information is lost. At every single layer, the protocol is seen to process the information assigned by its equivalence to attain the operation of each layer it represents (Tiwari 2014).



Badshah, F., Shah, S. T. U., Jan, S. R., & Rahman, I. U. (2017, March). Communication between multiple processes on same device using TCP/IP suite. In Communication, Computing and Digital Systems (C-CODE), International Conference on (pp. 148-151). IEEE.

Tiwari, A., Jaiswal, M., Varma, N., & Joshi, B. L. (2014). TCP/IP Protocol Suite, Attacks, and Security Tools. URl= https://www. academia. edu/7134687/TCP_IP_Protocol_Suite_Attacks_and_Security_Tools.


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