This chapter presents the type of research methods that were used in the study. Topics of interest covered include the data analysis as well as the presentation, the research design, and the sample used in collecting the information from different sources
Research Design: Secondary Research
Black et al., (2012) define research as a process of gathering information from different sources, which helps increase and improves the knowledge an individual has on a particular subject. Research helps in demystifying assumptions that one might have and have the facts that support an argument. For the purpose of the paper, the methodology will present an argument on the importance of using the secondary research, which is analysis of other authors work. This means published documents and books that have addressed the topic of interest in the past will provide the relevant information for the study (Cohen et al., 2016). A justification for using the secondary method, as the source of data is because many books addressing factors that may inhibit the development and growth of children as well as their needs have been written. Despite the method being time consuming, it provides rich and valuable information.
The research design selected for the study emphasizes on the quality and the quantity of the data collected and its relevance to how adolescents receive treatment after going through trauma (Greeson et al., 2011). In addition, the design allows the suggestions and recommendations from the authors on how to improve the data collected in the past. Recent publications fill the gap left by the previous authors on a topic (Black et al., 2012). Secondary research used in the study gives the study the credibility due to the numerous types of studies carried out about the subject. It is also possible to find information from diverse sources and summarize it with the required facts on the topic of developmental effects on sexually abused children. Of importance to note is that the secondary research used as the design in this study has no negative effect on the data collection from the different sources or in the analysis.
Secondary research as a method makes use of published documents like newspapers, websites, and journals, and books (Foa et al., 2008). The information from the above sources needs to have a date of publishing, name of the author, year, and a place of publishing. Journals and books make about eighty percent of the references. Books written by doctors and psychologists who have dealt with traumatized adolescents will also be used as they contain valuable information related to the topic (Greeson et al., 2011). Only information from published books will be of use as they provide the statistics of the number of adolescents with trauma from different sources.
Data Analysis and Presentation
Adolescents go through different challenges in their journey to adulthood (Foa et al., 2008). Some of the challenges are internal while others come from external factors that they have no control. The best way to present the statistical information processed into data is to display the various methods to approach the adolescents who have trauma. For the purpose of the study, graphs, charts, and pie charts will be of use (Black et al., 2012). They help present information in visual form that makes it easy to interpret while drawing conclusions about the trauma. The latest publications with the information from about the past five years will be used. Using the visuals is the best method in this case regarding medical and psychological ways of dealing with trauma. Collecting and analyzing this type of data will help the paper reach its objectives (Cohen et al., 2016). Among factors that will be analyzed include the treatment options for traumatic adolescents, the combination of different approaches to treat patients with chronic trauma, and reception of the adolescents as they go through the healing process.
Findings and Analysis
This chapter provides the analysis of both the quantitative and qualitative data in regards to the objectives set out in the beginning. Data presented in this part has the information sourced from the secondary sources. They provided the information about reasons why trauma cases are on the rise among the adolescents as well as the effects on the children both in the short-term and in the long-term. It will also provide information about reflections from adolescents who have gone through trauma in the past and state how it feels.
Research Objective 1: Why cases of trauma on adolescents is on the rise
Life is stressful as a general and no individual has the immunity to go through the pressure that comes with being alive. As children grow up, they experience different events that happen in their lives that leave them traumatized (Foa et al., 2008). Trauma is anything that interferes with the physical, emotional, or psychological wellbeing of an individual. It leaves them feeling stressed, horrified, or helpless at the time the thoughts revive in their bodies (Black et al., 2012). Some of the traumatic events that take place in adolescents lives include but not limited to acts of terrorism, domestic violence, sexual abuse, falling victim to bullying in school, suicide, amongst others (Gillies et al., 2013).
These events make them go through a rough patch in their lives and may need external help to deal with the activities that took place when they were younger. Hence, cases of trauma on adolescents are on the rise due to the eventualities happening in their lives. For instance, some of the external triggers to trauma like acts of terrorism come unexpectedly and leave negative effects on the affected adolescents (Cohen et al., 2016). Further, with the increased number of people in the world and the conflicts that exist in families, then it is inevitable to provoke the traumatic experiences in the mind of the teenagers. As they grow older, they are subjected to different experiences that may leave them falling victim to the causes of the traumatic feelings.
Research Objective 2: Long term and short effects of trauma adolescents
Black et al. (2012) states that the effects of trauma may last forever or may take a significant amount of time to be erased from the mind of the adolescent, which makes them sensitive. The effect on a child depends on the response and steps taken to reduce the impact of the traumatizing period. Delayed reactions to some traumatic events like sexual events may make the adolescent to take a longer time to recover than one who gets immediate attention. Hence, the long-term effects of the trauma include the change of behavior and character, distress, and interruptions in their development (Foa et al., 2008). This means that the adolescent who was in the right track in terms of developing may all of a sudden withdraw from interacting with their age mates. The loss of interest in the activities that children their age do may affect their concentration and ability to express themselves when in a crowd. Their academic grades may also drop leading to repetition of certain units in school (Gillies et al., 2013). This frustration may cause them to drop out of school. Short-term effects include nightmares and sleep disturbances especially immediately the traumatic event happens to the adolescent. They may also have anger issues and become irritable over insignificant issues. Adolescents who withdraw from their social circles may have a problem fitting in and become lonely. This further accelerates the conditions they feel in their thoughts as they feel unwanted (Cohen et al., 2016). Some of the traumatized adolescents may turn to drugs as a way to keep off from the negative thoughts they have in their minds. If untreated, the children may turn suicidal, as they want to put an end to the negative feelings they have.
Research Objective 3: Experiences of Trauma
Being a victim is never an easy thing as ones psychological wellbeing is diverted. For instance, sexually abused children have different traumatic feelings from those that undergo through domestic violence experiences. However, the common stressful feelings that all victims go through is denial (Black et al., 2012). Most of them have no strength to accept that they went through the experience, which troubles their minds more. They may also feel hated and unwanted. The feelings of hopeless and helplessness as they battle with the internal feelings of being the victim is common amongst them.
Black, P. J., Woodworth, M., Tremblay, M., & Carpenter, T. (2012). A review of trauma-informed treatment for adolescents. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 53(3), 192.
Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2016). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. Guilford Publications.
Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., Friedman, M. J., & Cohen, J. A. (Eds.). (2008). Effective treatments for PTSD: practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Guilford Press.
Gillies, D., Taylor, F., Gray, C., O'brien, L., & D'abrew, N. (2013). Psychological therapies for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. EvidenceBased Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, 8(3), 1004-1116.
Greeson, J. K., Briggs, E. C., Kisiel, C. L., Layne, C. M., Ake III, G. S., Ko, S. J., ... & Fairbank, J. A. (2011). Complex trauma and mental health in children and adolescents placed in foster care: Findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Child welfare, 90(6), 91.
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