a. Future demands on ethical health care.
In the 21st century, there has much advancement in the medical sector which has raised an issue on ethics of these medical advancements. Ethical health care is considered to be the provision of physician services by a set of principle which acts as a guideline to medical experts in making choices during treatment procedures. In future, there will be an increase in demands of advanced ethical healthcare systems and medication. These needs include human head transplants, warm blood perfusion systems, leadless pacemakers, advanced immunotherapies to aid in cancer treatment Silicon clinical treatment (induced chips in ones body), synthetic heart hormones and lastly young blood anti-aging.
b. Assistance of ethical theory on meeting the listed ethical health care demands
The above-listed needs are among the most ethical medical needs that will be required in the future. In each of the demands, there is a need for each to have an understanding of moral theory to ensure that each treatment procedure will blend in with each nations religious, political and social sector. For instance, consider a future health care demand like advanced immunotherapies. It is evident that Leukemia has been a catastrophic cancerous ailment that has resulted in a high death rate. The designing of advanced on immunotherapies which uses T-cells as therapeutics to re-engross the immune system is one of the future medical health care which may be successfully designed by Juno Therapeutic Technologies who are also working in hand with American Society of Hematology. The use of a utilitarian form of ethical theory which will work in favor of the majority will result in the total support on advanced immunotherapies to help those who have Leukemia.
a. Defending her decision to have a baby she desires.
I would use the deontological ethical health care approach which will enable me not be asked to justify my opinion based on aspects of religion. The use of deontological ethical theory developed by Immanuel Kant focuses on producing an appropriate decision for an individual and not the entire society. By Kants deontological ethical theory, it is the right for this woman celebrity to have the child she desired in the available technology provided she can finance. Opinions based on the ethics of society are hence not a barrier in restricting this celebrity in experiencing the joy of raising a baby which will be healthy and human.
b. Refuting the ethics of such decision.
By utilitarian ethical health care theory, the decisions made by medical experts are based on the majority. It is agreeable that in most of the society, each upholds religion hence one concludes that no religion supports man playing the role of creation. In this case, we are considering universal religions like Christianity, Muslims, Judaism, Buddhism and even Sikhism. According to the listed religions, a man playing the role of creativity is a mockery to each religions Creator. It is hence agreeable that according to the majority that the celebritys request of having a baby via the present technology since it will be a mockery to each religions Creator.
c. How could the baby created by technology be affected the technology that created him or her?
By the current technology in the medical department, Alan Guttmacher who is the director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human development affirms that the placenta is among the least understood human organs. It implies that provision of the wrong amount of oxygen and nutrients to a child will result to slow brain development hence the child will be born with Down syndrome. Other possible ailments and disorders may include; Klinefelters syndrome, Angelman syndrome and even Rett Syndrome.
d. How a baby created by technology could be affected by the technology that created him or her as one grows up to become an adult.
A mother has been considered to play a vital role in raising the child other than just giving birth. Raising a child starts from the process of fertilization in accordance to Johns Hopkins Fetal-Development Project. The complexity of the creation of birth of a child implies that there is no install of emotion in artificial wombs that can raise a child. Creation of babys without emotions will destroy the code of ethics set by the society since the child will have no feeling of remorse and love which are essential in defining a human being. It implies that as the baby grows up to an adult, his or her engagement in crime will increase since the child has no emotional ties. It will result in the creation of war machine personnels who are uncontrollable and will not be allowed by any society due to their immorality.
e. Limitations that should be placed in the baby business.
Medical experts should be restricted by the law so that, there is no creation of babies via artificial wombs or any other form of technology.
Members of each religion should consider it a mockery in human beings making their form of creation. They should uphold the process of having a baby to be sacred hence no one should participate in the artificial creation of children.
Also, the social media should be used in enhancing parental education on how one should maintain his or her body to avoid the necessity of artificial creation.
Rationing is the act of denying a resourceful beneficial medication or treatment service to a particular patient by scarcity. Health care decisions that are labeled as rationing but are not rationing include;
Transferring a patient who has slightly improved health wise, from a highly monitored ICU bed to less monitored patients wards beds to allow other more critical patients to utilize the ICU which is the limited resource in this case.
Attending to crucial patients first then to the less critical patients by medical experts to restore health in favor of all patients despite the precise initial order of attendance.
a. Health Care Proxy
It is a group of legal medical documents issued by an attorney that enable one to legalize his or her medical decisions. It also enables one to legalize medical decisions that one has made for another patient who cannot make that decision.
b. Advance Health care Directive
It is a legalized group of documents that enables one to make end-of-life care decisions before one has experienced medical crisis situations. It enables one to exercise his or her fundamental right to freedom of choice during treatment. For instance, one may choose to use artificial life support system or an inserted feeding tube by ones preference.
c. Medical Insurance cover
It is a legalized group of documents that enable one to secure his or her financial security during critical treatment situation which can occur in the future. It provides one with finances to exercise his right to freedom of quality medication. The government has hence legalized the medical insurance cover to secure quality health to their citizens.
a. Ethical procedure on the execution of assisted death.
There are more than a million ways for one to die, but only a few are held ethical by the society. It implies that during coming up with the policy based on assisted death, one must provide several ethical procedures that can be selected on certain occurrences. For instance, if one stays unconscious in the ICU for a long duration, turning of the life supporting machines is an ethical assisted health procedure. It concludes that ethics should be a consideration in the designing of the policy.
b. Freedom of choice in selecting the mode of assisted death that he or she wants.
In this consideration, the policy will allow one to select the medical facility that he or she will rest in and also select the preferable form of assisted death. It will be human and honorable allow one to select the form of death during the signing of the policy. In the creation of the policy, one should hence consider providing an opportunity for a patient to share his or her opinion.
c. Providing arrangements for an independent advocate
The policy should enable one to state his or her wish after his or her death. An advocate will ensure that all the request made by the patient after his or her assisted deaths are executed. Property owned by the deceased can be divided among his or her family in accordance to the independent advocate who speaks on behalf of the deceased.
a. What do you do?
As a physician who abides by the ethical and legal measures set in place, I consider providing first aid treatment like providing pain killers to ease a headache and ointment to treat the bruises. Consulting Jesse would be the second procedure based on identifying what happened to her. Confirming that the bruises are as a result of domestic violence would be the third step. Despite Jesses opinion on what happened, immediate reporting the issue to the police would be the next step so that the law can step in and seek justice for Jesse.
b. Ethics principles in support for my action?
Network principles are the international ethical principles that could support my ethical action on reporting domestic violence to the police. The principle is based on protecting women rights against acts of domestic violence on an international scale. The principle affirms that there is no excuse for any form of violence against the female gender. It implies that reporting domestic violence to law enforcing agencies is the correct step that I had to take.
Kants deontological principle based on making a decision that favors one despite other peoples opinion is another principle that guarantees my actions. It implies that I worked in favor of Jesse despite an opinion from her parents and my fellow doctors. It concludes that Kants deontological principle is an applicable legal principle which can be used to seek justice.
c. My next step if Jesse denies being a victim of domestic violence?
Provided I have affirmed that Jesse has been a victim of domestic violence, her denial on such inhumanity will not stop me from abiding with the ethical and legal procedure. The ideal procedure, In this case, is reporting the issue to the police.
7. Areas that decide if a patient treatment decision is competent?
Court of legal decisions is made legal by the judge.
World Health Organization
The Parliament- Amendments on the Bills of right.
The Worlds Medical Association
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