Questions and Answers on Genetics - Paper Example

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Wesleyan University
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The answer to question 1 is e). The market economic theory is compatible to social Darwinism in different aspects as it is presented by Adam Smith because of the following: the relationship between businesses in the marketplace is competitive therefore firms that are strong and efficient are usually more likely to survive than weak, inefficient ones. Social life is also competitive leading to people with the best genetic qualities rising to the top of the society. The correct answer to question 2 is (c). The maggots bear reference to traits that are influenced by a large number of genes. Hundreds of genes with a minimal effect and most time the feature they affect are usually rare because they tend to die without leaving behind offspring.

The correct answer to question 3 is (e) since, in the documentary, Dr. Margaret Thompson admitted that Albertas research was based on flawed science. The sterilization program constituted an egregious attack on human rights. She and other people were wrongfully sterilized, and she left the eugenics board in protest of its treatment of people with mild disabilities. The correct answer for number 4 is (e) since the idea of Aryan superiority was based on myth since there was no evidence in support of the opinion that Germans were the consummate modern Aryans. It also meant that other races were by definition inferior to people with Aryan ancestry.

The correct answer to question 5 is (g). Bidirectional influences are consistent with elements of interactionist perspective; it is observed in the treatment of beautiful babies and is seen in situations where an individuals genetic characteristics produce an effect in their social environment, which can then influence the individuals personality and behavior. The correct answer to question 6 is (g). The countries that engaged in compulsory sterilization of mentally disabled people all had socialist and communist governments and lacked academic institutions that could have nurtured opposition to eugenics programs. The answer to question 7 is (h) because the nativist perspective of human development assumes that personality and behavior traits are innate and inherited. Plato also supported this view. The correct answer to question 8 is (c). Eugenics and social Darwinism both allude to the fact that genetics influences social ills such as poverty, sloth, alcoholism, and criminality.

The correct answer for quest 9 is (d) because social Darwinism explained the relationship between colonizers and the colonized as a function of genetic superiority and inferiority. It also interprets Darwins idea of natural selection to mean Survival for the fittest. The correct answer to question 10 is (d). Subsequent research and discoveries support the notion of autosomal dominant-recessive influences for some phenotypes. The right answer for question 11 is (e). The principles of genetic drift depict that populations can get genetically distinct over time. It is possible for a gene to disappear from a tiny isolated community. The right answer for question 12 is (b). Hobbes idea of pre-civilized nature of humans is compatible with the notion that in the state of nature humans tend toward ruthless competition for resources. The correct answer to question 13 is (e) because social biology assumes that specific human behaviors have a genetic foundation. The human mind has evolved. Specific human behaviors and personality traits were selected through evolution and that it is similar in critical theoretical respects to evolutionary psychology.

The correct answer to question 15 is (f). Thomas Malthuss theories on population assumed that human competition for scarce food resources would periodically result in mass death. The correct answer to question 16 is (c) because Negative eugenics differs from positive eugenics such that eugenics seeks to prevent sub-optimal mating, while positive eugenics aims to encourage optimal couplings. The correct answer to question 17 is (g). Those involved or the German public at large has viewed the bureaucratic structure of the T-4 program as a contributing factor to the lack of opposition or protest because many participants in the process were not informed of the big picture or ultimate objectives of the program.

The correct answer to question 18 is (e). Processes leading to the development of unhealthy traits in domestic livestock and pets include breeding animals to meet the standards of the latest fads and fashions, to meet specific criteria set by official breeding organizations, and employing line breeding to ensure inheritance of desired traits leading to undesirable characteristics.

The right answer to question 19 is (b). The rule of thumb for causality described in the lectures as the causal explanation should account for the reasonable alternative reason rather than relying solely on correlations between the two variables. The correct answer to question 20 is (b). Binding and Hoche (1920) used the term useless eaters to refer to wounded soldiers who were taking up space in German hospitals after WW1. The correct answer to question 21 is (e). Social biology and evolutionary psychology assume specific behaviors are a result of evolutionary processes. The right answer to question 22 is (e). In the late Neolithic period, early individual farmers and animal herders adopted several selective breeding strategies for their livestock that were later incorporated in the 20th-century eugenics programs. These standard plans included segregating individuals and groups to ensure only optimal mating could occur and breed close relatives including brothers and sisters to ensure that the offspring would inherit useful traits.

The correct answer to question 23 is (g) because the interactionist perspective proposes that the actions and effects of genes and the environment are intertwined making it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to sort out the causal relationships that obtain between these two influences on human personality and behavioral characteristics.

The correct answer to question 24 is (h). Francis Galtons study of hereditary genius was in part developed to illustrate Galtons belief that social hierarchy is to a certain degree the result of genetic factors. The correct answer to question 25 is (i). The correct answer to question 26 is (f). Reasonable speculations emanating from the Genie case could include the case of Genie shows that when it comes to traits like fluency in a language genetic inheritance is more important than socialization. The correct answer to question 27 is (c). The official reason provided by Albertas was eugenics board for the sterilization of Leilani Muir was that she was deemed intellectually impaired after scoring low on an IQ test.

The correct answer to question 28 is (g). The human DNA includes coding based on the arrangement of four different nucleobases. Nucleobases include guanine, thymine, cytosine, and benzene. The correct answer to question 29 is (c). The relatively high incidence rate for hemophilia among male members of European royal families up to the early 20th century is attributed to inbreeding which resulted from the centuries-long practice of only allowing royals to marry other royals. The right answer for question 30 is (b). Mendels genetic discoveries alerted us to the fact some traits are the result of combinations of more than two gene pairs.

The list of part I answers is: 1 (e), 2 (c), 3 (e), 4(e), 5(g), 6 (g), 7 (h), 8 (c), 9 (d), 10 (d), 11 (e), 12 (b), 13(e),14(e), 15(f), 16(c), 17(g), 18(e), 19(b), 20(b), 21(e), 22(e), 23(g), 24(h), 25(I), 26(f), 27(c), 28(g). 29(c), 30(b)

The answer for part II, Mendelian Genetics are as follows:

When the widows peak trait is observed it means that, the allele for the quality is dominant. Only one allele for the character is required for the feature to be dominant. For the case of widows peak, it was dominant in Marlin Monroe but recessive in John F. Kennedy. A Punnett square can be used to determine the possible combinations that would tell Trumps chance for having widow's peak. JFK is homozygous recessive (ww) and Marlin Monroe is either heterozygous dominant (Ww) or homozygous dominant (WW). In the case where she is homozygous dominant, Trump would have the widows peak trait automatically heterozygous dominant (Ww). There if however, there a 50% chance that he could be their child as shown in the Punnett table and does not have the widows peak trait since it is recessive as is the case with JFK. The lawyer for the family is wrong to conclude that he is not their son since he does not have the widows peak trait.




The correct answer for part III, option #1 is:

If a group of heterozygous Tt tall pea plants is mated with each other according to Gregor Mendels model of dominant, recessive inheritance, there are some outcomes. In every four offspring plants of the pea plants, there is a chance of having one homozygous recessive (tt) pea plant, one homozygous dominant (TT) pea plant and two heterozygous (Tt) pea plants with the tall trait. Therefore 75% of the plants will be tall while 25% of the pea plants will be short.



Tt Tt T

Social Darwinists such as Herbert Spencer can justify the big gap between the rich and the power in the society by using genetic inheritance. His aspect of survival of the fittest means that the people at the helm of the community had superior traits, which gave them a more advantageous position in the competitive field. The Darwinists used this concept to justify imperialism, racist tendencies and conservative social as well as economic policies. The people with the best traits would compete and be better adapted to the conditions of the environment and consequently pass these traits down from one generation to the other through genetics to their offspring. The poorly adapted individuals would in turn pass on their weak and low-quality characteristics to their children.

Some dogs have been crossbred to fit into features that people want such as cuteness and dogs that do not shed their fur for the case of allergic people. Instead of breeding out traits that are problematic, they are bred in bad characteristics, which are passed down to offspring over generations. For example, some dogs have been bred to look good but have problems such as skull shape that cannot allow them to eat regular foods since the upper jaw is smaller or sometimes have trouble breathing or giving birth as well. Some dogs such as the chihuahua have a risk of their eyes popping out since the skull is too small for the eyes.

The T4 program spread in Germany aided by the facts that the doctors Hippocratic Oath was replaced and they were legal killings allowed in the country then. The requirement for doctors first duty to take care of the patient was scrapped and replaced with the responsibility to prioritize the riches needs and those of the ruling government. Every medical practitioner was also required to report every child with the disability. The children were apparently taken for treatment while else they were used for experiments. These experiments were done to the people with a mental health condition and people with disabilities as well.

The answers for Part IV; Option #2 are as follows:

Ideas held about eugenics and social Darwinism were incorrect, incomplete and in other cases faulty by the standards of the 20th-century findings on the topics. With the two theories combined, it seemed that they were correct and the people in the top levels of the society embraced the idea. They believed that traits of poor physical characteristics and disease among other weak features such as lack of intelligence were passed along from parent to offspring. This statement was partially correct. Eugenics tried to explain how the characteristics could be bred out of the human a...

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