The Role of Synapsin I in Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms Underlies Exercise-Induced Improvement in Social Memory: A Systematic Review
Introduction: Intracellular signaling mechanism is an important biological function, as scholars continue to seek new ways of improving social memory. Researchers have conducted several studies on the role of synapsin I in intracellular signaling mechanism. This study assessed the empirical evidence that shows the role of synapsin I in intracellular signaling mechanism with the aim of achieving exercise-induced improvement in social memory.
Methods: Nine previously conducted researches were reviewed in this paper. The included studies were controlled laboratory experiments involving mice as the subjects.
Results: Although the studies included were done in different timelines, the researchers agreed in unison that synapsin I plays a crucial role in cell signaling. The outcome of the practical studies was vital in understanding function and physiology of human cells, which is fundamental in science and human anatomy.
Conclusion: In particular, the findings shows how exercise can improve social memory by triggering the intracellular signaling mechanism. The limited number of studies addressing the topic of intracellular cell signaling suggests that more study is needed to provide more evidence on the issue.
Key words: synapsin I, intracellular signaling, excercise, social memory
Physical exercise, is by far, one of the most powerful and efficient cerebral motivators. Apparently, exercise is capable of inducing significant and rather reliable developments in performance in various mental activities among variable species. Most mental tasks take place in the brain with the neurotropic and neurogenic those are facilitated by exercise. Critical studies relate to results of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as the sole mediator of the positive impacts of exercise concerning the aspects of cognition and neurogenesis.1,2 An underlying role for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in these exercise controlled transformations has not necessarily been established. More so, the individual techniques through which the supposed activities augment the expression of BDNF in the brain and by which these apparent increases transform into memory developments remain unknown.3 As researchers continue to discover and develop new medicines, it is necessary to shed more light on intracellular cell signaling. Understanding how synapsin I affects the signaling mechanism can assist in developing new pathways for addressing medical issues that affect the bodys functionality at the cellular level. Critical examination and synapsis effect with exercise improves the social memory implying relevant studies. The findings and conclusion are the same in this study.
Evidently, the part played by the BDNF in learning and memory has been expressly determined as regards the individual short-term and long-lasting impacts on the neurons.1 The effects may well undergo alleviation by its apparent obligatory connection to the tyrosine kinase B receptor and the subsequent initiation of flexibility-affiliated signaling flow.4 One of the signaling flows is the extracellular signal-affiliated kinase channel known to be imperative in some methods of learning and memory. Key studies encompassed the particular examination of the effects of induced exercise on the manifestation and discharge of BDNF and the initiation of the BDNF receptor in the dentate gyrus.4 Nonetheless, they entailed the investigation of set manipulation tactics about the control for impacts of learning on cell motioning and or signaling. Nevertheless, their revelations ascertain that exercise has the capability to incite additional transformation in the hippocampus that may well trigger the development of social memory through such aspects as regards the rise in the manifestation of vesicle proteins of the synapse-like synapsin I, as well as in the neurogenesis.5
This paper recruited studies done in the last ten years on the role of synapsin I in intracellular signaling mechanism. The idea was to identify studies done in a laboratory setting that provide evidence that can address the objective of this study. The researcher identified several eligibility criteria for the inclusion of articles in the study. Firstly, the study had to be peer-reviewed. The PROQUEST online database provided for the filtration of peer-reviewed articles only. The study relied majorly in laboratory experiments and the researchers majored their projects on rats as the specimen. The idea was to seek uniformity of the study that allowed comparison of findings. The literature searching was conducted by surfing in to the sePROQUEST database to identify articles relevant for the study. The online database provides for the identification of other studies conducted by the same authors. After logging on to the PROQUEST website, the researcher set the setting to peer-reviewed. 2005-2015 was another step to enter the date gap, which separated the old study from research references. Finally, the researcher entered the keywords Synapsin I and Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms and pressed the search button.
Articles were carefully selected that involved this paper making in addressing the predetermined focus. The abstract was reviewed after the study was collected.
idea was to use the summary that the abstracts provided to determine the relevance of the studies. The review of abstract allowed the research to open and review the entire study after it passed the criteria. After the relevant studies were identified, the relevant data was extracted. The reviewed study shows the information pertaining the authors detail included with year of publication and the mode of study. The mode of study and the results are organized in the table
In most of the studies, mice were exterminated by beheading almost with immediate effect after completing a certain set of activities appertaining to specific behavioral dispositions plus the individual brains were dispensed with and dissected hemispherical-wise on ice.6 In this regard, the left half was assessed for the purposes of immunohistochemistry. The resultant half was then situated on a respective cork disk covered with relevant compounds and afterward dissolved in liquid nitrogen. The frozen samples were in turn wrapped in aluminum foil and then stored in a temperature enhanced environment at -80 degrees Celsius until such time as was appropriate for precise sectioning. Moreover, the right half section was subdivided through such techniques as the application of handicraft on ice and the particular dentate gyrus was then separated into three parts of equal measure for extensive consideration and or evaluation of the test subjects.7 One of the portions of the sample was in turn cross cut for examination of the subsequent discharge of the BDNF. The secondary phase was in effect subjected effective storage measures as the preservation of the test subjects in ribonucleic acid later on in training for the purposes of RNA abstraction. Consistently, the third portion was forthrightly standardized in a buffer characteristically of lysis. Afterward, a cluster of the pure breed caged and controlled mice was evaluated in contrast for such purposes appertaining to the discharge of the respective BDNF discharge mechanisms.8 Extra cellular synapsin and cellular kinase are initialized as TrkB. The apparent stringiest aim concerning effect of studying cell indicative paragidims. The mice were assessed in terms of establishing and or determining the notion of selectively evaluation of the characteristic traits of the two clusters of the test subjects, say the sedentary and active rats. The research entailed the inclusion of extra mice in storage seeing as though in the off-chance that a test subject should die in the process of investigation then extra mice could probably be used as an effective replacement.15 Moreover, the ethical considerations were assimilated in the conduction of the study.
Table 1: The systematic review of the study
No. Author, Year Subjects The research design
1 Awizio et al (9). 2007 Mice Laboratory experiment
2 Marais L et al (10). 2009 Mice Laboratory experiment
3 Fornasiero et al (8). 2010 Rats Experimental research
4 Micheva et al (11). 2010 Rats Laboratory experiment
5 Soontornniyomkij et al (12). 2010 Mice Experimental research
6 Sharma et al (13). 2010 Wistar rats Experimental research
7 Li, Zhou et al (14). 2013 Rats Laboratory experiment
8 Fernandes et al (3). 2013 Mice Laboratory experiment
9 Ohia-Nwoko et al (7). 2014 Mice Laboratory experiment
The researcher conducts the study but avoided the aspect of animal test moral. Mice being the specimen in this case. The research of establishing the roles of synapsin-1 on the test mice may well entail the application of such moral laws that dictate the handling of the animals used as test subjects used in this study. Quite so, the analysts who did more in the way of coming up with somewhat conclusive findings regarding the investigation operated under the stringent confines of enacting the specific and or distinct moral concepts.16 Nonetheless, the data sources utilized in the study were well explored as they were legitimate in ensuring that the medical aspects were, for all purposes and intent, corresponding with the rather stated and standard declarations put forth concerning the safety in handling animals seeing as though the animals. In this regard, are not susceptible to deploying such physical endowment capabilities like the necessary awareness attributed to conscientious factors.
As indicated earlier, one of the main inclusion criteria for this study was the laboratory experiments involving rats. Therefore, the study incorporated such data collective tactics that involved the scrutinized examination of the test subjects in this regard, the mice. In the selected study, the researchers had conducted similar assessment of the rats traits that relate to the intracellular signaling mechanism with regard to the synapsin I. The choice provided a common platform for comparison of the intracellular signaling mechanism. In all the 12 studies, the scholars agreed in unison that synapsin I plays a significant role in initiating the intracellular signaling mechanism. In one study, one week long of enforced physical exercise has the capacity of improving the social memory in a characteristically troubling dimensional activity appertaining to the augmentation of the corresponding to the manifestation of the brain derivative neurological factor in the dentate gyrus, hippocampus, and the perirhinal cortex.10 The other studies revealed that the administration of a single dosage of BDNF in the intracellular cerebral ventricle is adequate to emulate the developments in the object identification. The findings revealed that apparently the test subjects mainly the exercised and sedentary species consistently displayed contrasting conceptual and or conclusive findings regarding the role of synapsin I in exercise-induced developments of individual mice.
Fig. 1: The systematic selection of studies
The aspects appertaining the tested mice training and effective motivates approach creates response and activation. The findings also incorporated a final evaluation of the sedentary mice that equally matched the observatory experiences of the study. Suffice it to say; the study came up with such presuppositions as entail such findings appertaining to the influence of inactivity regarding establishing and or determining the role of synapsin I in the prospects of induced exercise towards affecting the social and or spatial memory.
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