The Progressives and the rise of big Governments are the studies of growth and developments of governments relates to the modern economy. The 4th Amendment of the Constitution gave rights and responsibilities to people in America. It gave full citizenship to all natural born Americans. Corporations became people under the law. They can sue or be sued. The government has a responsibility to pay bills. Industrialization has resulted in an increase in the countrys gross net product from the year 1869 to 1918. In the year 1860, manufacturers income was two billion dollars, but by the year 1900, they were making over eleven billion. The number of factories increased from 140,000 to 355,000. This means that more taxes were being paid to the government. The increase in industries led to increasing number of industrial workers from 1.3 million people to 4.2 million people. There was also a great increase in the number of patents.
There was a rise of some investors and entrepreneurs such as franklin, Whitney, Ford among others. There were rise big companies such as sugar, cotton, meat and even whiskey that became monopolies in the American economy. The monopolies and trust included Rockefeller which manufactured oil, Morgan trust that dealt with finance, Vanderbilt that was constructing railroads, and the Carnegie that was manufacturing steel products. There was a negative notion that the rich were chosen by God.
The growth of more companies raised the demand for labor. There was immigration from Europe, Britain, and Italy to supply their cheap labor to the American companies. This had a negative impact on Americans. The blacks migrated to the North America to seek for better working conditions and remuneration. Rapid industrialization led to the growth of cities during the year 1900. It was enhanced by first, the immigrants who moved in those towns. Second, replacement of farmers with machines and therefore the farmers moved to the towns. Lastly, civil war in South made the African Americans move to the northern cities. There was the rise of a political machine which was a group that won the people and become the government with the City boss as the leader.
Organized labor movement: Due to poor working condition for long working hours, poor remuneration, lack of employees socio-welfare, and the replacement of skilled labor with machines needed an urgent labor movement for collective bargaining. The movement was to air the employees grievances, and in 1914 a department of labor was created in government. The movement also wanted child labor to be abolished. After the initiation of the movement, the people have had enough progressive eras commenced. During this era businesses were regulated which enabled workers to gain rights that they deserved and also Anti-Trust Laws came into operation. Other laws that came into place were the Food & Drug Act in 1906 and the Federal Reserve Act. Corporate Income Tax for Companies was also introduced to curb the freedom of the corporates. Creation of Interstate Commerce Commission was also a plus in Regulation of businesses.
However, the revolution was yet to be accomplished because there was some opposition to the laws adopted such as the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 that outlawed monopolies. Progressive reformers such as the socio lawyers and journalists investigated matters in deep. Gender inequality was evident in states because women were not allowed to vote. This led to a suffragette movement that represented the women rights. Women started to reform the society in areas such as health and safety, education, workplace, and food.
Voting reforms include direct primaries, referendums, recall, and initiatives and finally senators direct election that was the 7th amendment. Progressive reformers aimed at giving a solution to problems that were facing the government. Consumers reforms were safeguarding the well-being of customers such safety drug administration. It is the responsibility of the government to control and regulate national activities.
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