History has demystified the problems the black community have undergone. The challenges can be dated back to the previous centuries where black community was unfairly treated. The black-American community has faced incarceration as opposed to the counterpart white community. The African-Americans have met the highest rates of incarcerations in the world with a statistic of over 1.6 million people dwelling in the prisons (Capek, 2014). Out of the approximate numbers, the disproportionate number included African Americans.
The blacks were so prevalent that any single male with no degree qualification is more likely to be within the precincts of prison than working outside. In fact, many scholars and researchers have regarded such a high number of African Americans in prison as another form of Jim Crow segregation where the minority groups head from senior schools by the veritable pipeline. The women we not spared either. They faced the same problems the men went through. The women were equally unfair incarcerated in comparison to the men. The issue of incarceration is critical as was then to the blacks since it denies them the freedom of expression and assembly.
The Law Policy before 1900
In 1896, the United States Supreme Court made a decision that was between Plessy and Ferguson that upheld separate but equal' segregation as part of the doctrine of the constitution. After the civil war, the United States expanded the legal and constitutional rights of the African Americans. The Congress together with some states within the United States ratified an amendment that finally ended the slavery against the black community. This was the 13th amendment of the constitution of the United States to be performed in the United States.
The amendment outlawed slavery but did not grant rights nor equal rights to the blacks. However, in 1868 a 14th amendment was ratified by the United States of America States that granted the African Americans citizenship. Furthermore, the amendment also gave all the persons born in the United States equal protection and privileges under the constitution. After that there followed other amendments like the 15th one in 1870 that the race should not be used by any individuals to deprive men of their ability to engage in voting was introduced (Mortensen, 2015). The granting of the rights to the blacks against segregation gave the African Americans a lifeline. Although it wasn't the end of challenges and mistreatment, it marked a very significant achievement for the blacks. Continuously, other laws and amendment strengthened the blacks against segregation and abuse.
Law or Policy 1900-1975
The struggle did not end with the previous century but continued with activism from men and women who felt aggrieved with the status quo. In the 20th century, yet again, the Supreme Court overturned some specific that advanced segregation by disenfranchising the African-Americans. This happened between Guinn versus the United States in 1915. At the same time, the court extended to uphold the issue of segregated schools. Similarly, in the court decision between Kentucky versus Berea College, the court decided that the Kentucky statute barred the private college, Berea College. The law barred the school from teaching the white and black students in an integrated environment.
The back and forth issues on segregation affected the black community adversely. In the Kentucky versus Berea College, the court came up with restrictive laws that approved the known as Jim Crow laws that manufactured the second-class citizens for the Black Americans. Such support from the justice system continued to oppress the African-Americans, segregated them, and even kept them away from some critical places like in schools.
Consequently, later in a few years, another constitutional amendment helped to ban the segregation that had bedeviled the black community. The ban and amendment helped to bring peace and harmony in the United States. They had consistently been disallowed from working together and schooling with the white community. However, the policy amendment took away the law that discriminated the black community.
Law and Policy 2000-2017
In the year 2007 in June, the Supreme Court in a case between Parents involved in the Community Schools versus Seattle School District decided together with the board of education, that the school districts had no capacity to assign the students to particular and specific public schools for receiving segregation of the different racial groups (Capek, 2014). The Supreme Court recognized the existence of racial balancing as one of the compelling interest of the state.
In fact, it is this at this time that the United States of America elected its first black president to hold such high office. In the above case, the school distributed its children to different specific public schools for there to exist racial competence and understanding. The parents refused and went to the court to get justice for the ethnic minority.
The black community especially African Americans have faced difficult times. Some of the amendments restricted the black community from exercising their rights and fundamental freedoms. Consequently, the subsequent amendments gave the African Americans their fundamental freedoms. The school managements allowed free interaction between the students from diverse racial groups.
Capek, M. (2014). Civil rights movement. Simon and Schuster.Mortensen, L. (2015). Voices of the civil rights movement. OUP Oxford.
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