There are various theories which are applied in the nursing profession. These theories have been integrated into the nursing practice and the various principles upon which they are premised on are applied in various ways in nursing. The two divisions of theories are nursing theories and non-nursing theories. These two types of theories are applied in the areas of nursing such as health care, education, advanced clinical practice and in being informative. This paper considers one nursing theory and non-nursing theory and thereafter discusses how the theories impact the nursing practice. Lastly, a consideration of how the two theories can work interpedently of each other is discussed.
The non-nursing theory that is discussed is the Maslows theory of hierarchy of needs. This theory reflects on the basic human needs like belonging, shelter, safety and self-actualization. The main tenets of the theory are premised on individuals striving to attain satisfaction in progressive human needs and wants. Individuals are supposed to fulfill the basic human needs before progressing towards the advanced secondary needs. It is argued that this behavior observed in individuals is as a result of human nature being the motivation of seeking basic wants before progressing towards secondary wants (Jackson et al. 2014). Physiological needs should first be attained before progressing to the psychological needs.
The nursing theory that will be applied in this paper is the Interpersonal theory of Paplau. In this theory, Paplau construes that nursing is an interpersonal process in which therapeutic interactions between the individuals that are sick or those who require health services should have a nurse who will educate them in how to recognize and respond towards the needs of the patients. It is common practice that in the nursing profession the goal being serving as the incentive in both the nurse and the patient being the therapeutic process whereby both individuals learn and grow as a result of the interactions they share with each other. The individual is able to learn in selecting the stimuli around his or her environment and thereafter reacting accordingly towards the stimuli. Paplau, makes the following assumptions in his theory. The first assumption is that the patient and the nurse can interact, secondly, both the nurse and the patient mature in their interaction due to the therapeutic interactions they share, thirdly, interviewing skills and communication remain an essential nursing tools. Lastly, Paplau believed that nurses should understand clearly themselves so as to promote the growth of their clients as well as avoid in limiting the choices of the clients as to those that the nurses value (Zarea et al., 2014).
The Maslow theory of hierarchy of needs impact are applied in nursing practice through a number of ways. This theory does allow health workers to access individuals through the various characteristics of physical, intellectual, social, emotional and moral characteristics. The physical appearance of individuals cannot be detached from the emotional feelings of the same individuals. During the various stages of treatment and management, the first consideration is the elementary feelings of the individual. This particular information is picked by are considered and accounted for by various health care workers such as the social worker, physician, nurse, psychologist and pathologist. The physiological needs such as water, food, sleep, air and homeostasis are the first needs that are looked into and its the nurses who conduct routine checks to ascertain that the patients have access to all these needs during their stay at the hospital. After the satisfaction of these physiological needs, the other needs that are considered thereafter are the secondary needs which will facilitate a better stay for the individuals during their stay at the hospital and hence result in them obtaining better treatment (Lambrou et al., 2010). There is need to recall that the secondary wants that should be catered for at the hospital set up rank as second and afterwards the next stages that are achieved is having a successful relationship with the patients, job security for the nurses, intellectual growth and professional achievement which are looked upon later and are vital in ensuring the patients receive better health, are productive and their well-being is catered for. The patients and clients should be treated according to the expectations of their families, their physical health, communication abilities and career situations with inputs from their family members and their capabilities of working. The treatments and management that the patients receive target mostly in providing the core needs of the patients before further secondary steps are undertaken in provision of the secondary needs they require.
The theory of interpersonal relationship is grounded on four sequential phases. These phases are orientation, identification, exploitation and resolution. During the orientation phase, the following tenets are considered. There is the problem defining phase which starts with having the nurses meet with the stranger, the problems of the stranger are defined and the type of service required is decided. The client thereafter seeks assistance and conveys his needs by asking questions and sharing his expectations and preconceptions. Lastly, the nurse responds by explaining the to the client problems and aid that is available to the client. The factors which influence the orientation phase are contributed by both partners. The nurse is influenced by his or her values, beliefs, past experiences, preconceived ideas, cultural race and expectations (Kornhaber et al., 2016). On the other hand, the patient is influenced with factors such as past experiences, beliefs, cultural race, values and expectations.
In the identification phase the major factors played out in this phase are the selection of appropriate professional assistance and the patient beginning to feel the feelings of belonging as well as the capabilities of being able to deal with the challenges of increased feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. The third stage which is the exploitation phase entails a number of things. Alternatives of the professional assistance are discussed. The advantages of the services that are given to the patient are considered on the basis of the interests and needs of the patients, the individuals involved feel themselves as integral members that are being helped in the environment, the patients are allowed to make minor requests. The interviewing techniques and other principles of communication are explored in a bid to understand the challenges adequately; the independence of the patients fluctuate. The nurses are aware of the diverse forms of communication and lastly the nurses help the patients to exploit the various avenues which are available in helping in the progress of the patients (Kornhaber et al., 2016). The last stage in interpersonal theory is the resolution phase. In this phase, there is the termination of the professional relationship that had developed. The needs of the patients have been achieved through the collaborative synergy between the patient and the nurses. There is a need of terminating the therapeutic relationship in a bid to resolve the links that had existed among these parties. At times, achieving this is difficult due to the psychological dependence that may have been created and lastly, the patients break the bonds and drift away from the nurses so as to create healthier emotional balance which is demonstrable and that leads to both individuals being mature.
The Maslows theory of needs and Paplaus interpersonal theory are interrelated in a significant number of aspects. Both theories as evidenced from the arguments deduced above indicate that the primary well-being of the individuals is accorded an essential aspect in both theories. Maslow in his theory sought to justify how human needs influence the kind of lives individuals live due to the different needs and wants being sought by individuals during their phases of life. Paplau, also on the other hand highlights the core tenets which are practice in nursing care during the provision of services to patients. Both theories are anchored on the premises of providing the best solutions and alternatives that can be sought by individuals depending on which phase these individuals are at the moment. Further evidence suggesting that both theories function interdependent of each other in the manner in which both of them have stages to be fulfilled before progressing to the nest phase. The first stages deal with the primary needs that are required by patients in the case of Paplau and individuals as required by Maslow. In essence the needs and wants provided by both theories are the same with the only difference being one is a sick individual with the other one being a healthy individual.
Jackson, J. C., Santoro, M. J., Ely, T. M., Boehm, L., Kiehl, A. L., Anderson, L. S., & Ely, E. W. (2014). Improving Patient Care Through the Prism of Psychology: application of Maslows Hierarchy to Sedation, Delirium and Early Mobility in the ICU. Journal of Critical Care, 29(3), 438444. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.01.009Lambrou, P., Kontodimopoulos, N., & Niakas, D. (2010). Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital. Human Resources for Health, 8, 26. http://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4491-8-26Zarea, K., Maghsoudi, S., Dashtebozorgi, B., Hghighizadeh, M. H., & Javadi, M. (2014). The Impact of Peplaus Therapeutic Communication Model on Anxiety and Depression in Patients Candidate for Coronary Artery Bypass. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health : CP & EMH, 10, 159165. http://doi.org/10.2174/1745017901410010159Kornhaber, R., Walsh, K., Duff, J., & Walker, K. (2016). Enhancing adult therapeutic interpersonal relationships in the acute health care setting: an integrative review. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 9, 537546. http://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S116957
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