Methods of Testing for Hazards (Dust and Solvents)

7 pages
1884 words
University of Richmond
Type of paper: 
Critical thinking
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.




Definition 2

Executive Summary 4

1.1 Introduction 5

2.0 Effects of chemical hazards 5

3.0 Factors affecting the risk of exposure 6

4.0 Chemical hazards in a wood workshop 7

4.1 Methods of testing for hazards 8

5.0 The LEV system 11

5.1 Figure showing an LEV system 12

5.1.2 Performance criteria for the LEV system 12

5.2 Importance of the LEV system 14

5.3 Methods of testing for hazardous solvents 15

Recommendations 16


Executive Summary

Chemical hazards are a type of workplace hazard that resist in exposure to chemicals. The exposure to chemicals at the place of work may lead to acute or chronic detrimental health effects. In most work places, individuals use or store chemicals in one way or another. If not adequately controlled chemicals can cause a wide array of health effects, including irritation, sensitization and also carcinogenicity. For these chemicals to cause health implications to those affected, they must enter or come into contact with ones body. There are three major routes through which a chemical can enter a

Persons body. First and foremost, it is through inhaling gasses, mists or dust that is usually in the air. Secondly, it is through the skin or contact with the eyes. These chemicals damage the skin or might be absorbed through the skin into the bloodstream. Thirdly, it is through ingestion. This might happen when the chemicals spill or settle on food, hands, or even beverages. When these chemicals penetrate into the

Body, some move into the bloodstream and thus, reach internal organs or even the Nervous system.1 if poor1y controlled, chemical hazards can result to adverse health

11. Proctor, N.H., Hughes, J.P. And Hathaway, G.J., 2004. Proc: for and Hughes' chemical hazards of (he workplace.) John Wiley & Sons.

1.1 Introduction

Chemical hazards take a variety of forms e.g. Solids, liquids, dust, vapors, gasses, fumes, and mists. The manner in which the chemical hazard is in determines how it gets into one's body and the extent of harm it causes. Moreover, these hazards can change form depending on the surrounding environment. A good example is how liquid solvents evaporate and emit vapors that one can inhale. It is at times difficult to detect chemical hazards as they take forms that cannot be detected. First and may or not be visible, contingent upon their mass of concentration. Additionally, fumes, vapors, and gasses are usually invisible.

2.0 Effects of chemical Hazards

Effects of toxic chemical hazards may either be acute or chronic. Acute or short-term effects show up immediately or a short time after the exposure to the chemical. Acute effects are typically minor, like throat or nasal irritation. In general, acute effects happen right away. On the other hand, chronic or long-term effects take quite a longer time to show up, sometimes years. They are caused by exposure to a harmful chemical over an extended period of time.The chronic effects resulting from a chemical hazard exposure are mostly permanent. However, some chemicals have proven to cause bath short-term and long-term health effects. Chemical toxic substances at the workplace can be evident if the employees experience symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, sneezing, coughing, sore throat, wheezing, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, stomach ache, diarrhea, among others. Also, the nervous system of the affected persons might be damaged thus leading to uneasiness, and lack of sleep, shocks, loss of balance or coordination. Also, the reproductive systems for both men and women may be damaged, resulting in low sperm count and Irregularities In menstruation respectively.

2 Bretherick, L., 2016. Brelherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. Elsevier.

Sydenova, 0. And Bengt son, M., 2011. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste Management.

3.0 Factors affecting the risk of exposure

Of chemical threats, at home or the marketplace. Foremost, the level of 1oxici1Y of the Occupational hazards of intervention al cardiologists: prevalence of orthopedic health problems in contemporary practice. . This means that the more toxic a chemical is, the more it is likely to cause health implications even in very subtle quantities. Chemicals such as Asbestns and cyanide are termed highly toxic as a minuscule amount can cause health effects.

Secondly, the route of exposure affects an individuals risk of health problems. Thinly, the amount of the chemical that one is exposed affects the extent of the health effects. A good example Acetone, which is used both as an industrial solvent as well as a nail polish remover. The industrial worker is at a greater risk of health effects as the lady who uses it as a little nail polish remover. The duration a person is exposed to these chemical hazards also affects their risk. The longer the exposure results to greater dangers in regarding their heahh.9 Research has also shown that there are personal differences that may affect the extent of effects caused by the chemical hazards. These factors include genetics, body size, age, drinking, smoking, allergies, sensitivities and prior exposures to other toxic chemicals. For Instance, Lead has more harmful effects on small children as compared to adults since it affects their developing MUS system and brain.

World Health Organization, 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality (Vol.1). World Health Organization.

B Grand jean, P., and Landrigan, P.J., 2006. Developmental neurotoxl city of industrial chemicals. The Lancet.

Kampa, M. and Cas1anas, E., 2008. Human health effects of air pollution. Environmental pollution.

4.0 Chemical hazards in a wood workshop

In the setting of a workshop, where some of the processes involving the use of adhesives on fabrics and cutting wood, there is a massive production of vapor . The woodwork process requires the use of solvent adhesives and results to pollution of wood dusts and vapor. Exposed workers who work in these zones are susceptible to all the ill effects, both acute and chronic. Woodwork produces wood chips and dust in the workshops atmosphere, exposing the workers to respiratory-related and skin ailments. Subsequently, the risk and likelihood of injury and poor performance will rise. These hazards might result to health implications to the workers and thus reduces performance at work. .These adhesives might spill onto foods or beverages of the

Employees, and thus they get ingested. Similarly, the chemicals used might fall on their skin causing irritation or corrosion. Measures, must, therefore, be put in place by the management to ensure that the chemicals being used are well controlled, to avoid any risks of exposure. Having identified the chemical hazard in the workshop, various hazard controls can be applied to reduce its effects on the workers. Not all controls are equally effective, and therefore there should be a hierarchy. A combination of several methods is, however, most suitable for controlling the hazards. Most importantly, the best way to protect the workers from the chemical adhesives and other related hazards at the workshop is to remove the hazards in the workplace. Such a procedure is called an engineering control. This method of hazard control will involve replacing the adhesives with other less harmful or completely safe chemical. By doing this, the Workers will not have to wear special protective gear because the hazard is gone. The management can also isolate the processes in the workshop. Likewise, isolation of the worker from these processes can be done.

Van der Oost, R., Beyer, J., and Vermilion, N.P., 2003. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environmental toxicology and phannacology.

4.1 Methods of testing for hazards (Tests done at the cold spring harbor laboratory)

Exposure to airborne and solvent contaminants in the workplace is linked to a wide spectrum of occupational diseases. 'Various methods are therefore applied in work environments to assess, measure, and characterize exposure to potentially hazardous contaminants in the occupational environment. Example of such methods include: Air sampling and tube sampling. In air sampling, a large volume of air is ccollected for the purpose of qualitative analysis. In the case of testing solvents, a tube sampler is used which carries a specific amount of the solvent being investigated for being hazardous. The diagram below shows a tube sampler:

Methods of Testing for Hazards (Dust and Solvents)

According to the RCRA hazardous waste regulations,' a solvent must first be classified as a solid waste product before it is then considered as to whether it is dangerous or not. Solid waste includes solid materials, liquids as well as contained gasses. A solvent is considered as a solid waste when they are contaminated hence have to be reprocessed a fresh. A solvent is also a solid waste if it has expired and hence can no longer be used if it is an off-specification commercial chemical product and hence it can no longer be used.

How to Determine if A Solvent is a Solid Waste

To be able to know if the solution can be grouped as a solid waste one should use the EPAS definition of solid waste decision tool which helps one to be able to make a variety of decisions to be able to know if the solvent meets the characteristics of the solid waste.

The Method of Determining If the Solvent Is Hazardous

If the solvent is not a solid waste that means that that solvent is not a hazardous waste. A solid waste solvent is determined if it is dangerous through the use of sampling and analysis or using a generator knowledge.

Identifying Through Sampling and Analysis Method

A solution can be determined if it is hazardous through the standard test method for solvents analysis in hazardous waste using the gas chromatography. This test method is useful in identifying the major solvent constituents in hazardous waste samples. Its mainly designed to support field or site assessments, recycling and plant operations or the pollution control programs. This method is used to determine the quality and quantity of the following compounds in waste samples using the process of gas chromatography. This test is mainly designed to be used as a screening method which has a typical level of reporting that is 0.1%.Some of the gasses include methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride.

The instruments used in carrying out the test are the liquid chromatograph, a UV-VIS spectrometer and a gas chromatograph which is coupled to a mass spectrometer. During the chromatography analysis, the samples go through two phases the first is the mobile phase through which the sample dissolves into a substance which later carries it through a structure holding another material. The second phase in a chromatography is the stationary phase. The mobile phase is a carrier gas while the stationary phase consists of a solid which is packed inside a long, thin tube which is known as a column.

How to Choose a Sample in Gas Chromatography

The sample should be a liquid which is full of volatile compounds which are injected into the gas chromatograph. Inside it heats up quickly to a high temperature which makes the sample to go into the gas phase which is the mobile phase. After the sample is vaporized, it is then carried through the thin column by a reagent gas like helium, nitrogen or hydrogen which makes up the stationary phase.

Limitations of This Method

Proper attention is required during the injection of the gaseous sample.

The sample must be thermally stable for it not to get degraded once its heated.

This method can only be used for volatile samples or which can be made volatile.

This process was carried out at the Oregon state University

Have the same topic and dont`t know what to write?
We can write a custom paper on any topic you need.

Request Removal

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the website, please click below to request its removal: