Hybridity refers to the combination of different progenies from diverse genetic origins. Cultural hybridity, therefore, relates to a blend of unique cultures from various backgrounds around the globe it entails racial and cultural mixture. On the other hand, multiculturalism refers to the diverse racial and national diversity of societies.it encompasses different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Hybridity and multiculturalism intermarry and nuances a clear picture of the cultural differences and blends among diverse communities in the world (Artz, and Kamalipour, p.36 2012). The paper aims at critiquing the hybridity and multicultural practices in the world. Multiculturalism has brought the appreciation of various cultures of different societies in the diaspora and at home. The central arguments of the paper include hybrid programming, third space, post-colonial hybridity, cultural imperialism, living diversity, the political difference between others.
Sir Nicholas Shehadie, the former chair of the unique broadcasting service (SBS), contends that multiculturalism has transformed Australia from an English as a single culture practicing society to a nation that has integrated of diverse traditions and languages from all over the globe (Artz, and Kamalipour, p.39 2012). The critical role of the SBS is to continue endorsing the dynamic diversity of the rapidly growing social framework.
Cultural imperialism refers to the practice and preferment of a culture of a powerful nation over a society which is less powerful.it promotes anti essentialism which entails the non-believer in essence of any idea that brings social process (Bhabha,p.89 2015). Besides, it rejects the expedition for uniqueness and authenticity of local identity.
Post-colonial hybridity came as a result of criticism of the cultural imperialism, and this is the second stage of hybridity. The ambivalence between the colonial masters and the colonized societies led to the development of a culture which was a hybrid of the practices and beliefs of the colonizer and the colonized. Mimicry that the colonized nations used given rise to the adoption of the culture of the colonial master (Bhabha,p.93 2015). The blend of the western culture with that of the colonized societies resulted in the development of a hybrid culture. Theorist Homi Bhabha describes the ways through which the colonized has resisted the power of the colonizer he describes the process through the use of absolute terms, for instance, mimicry, and ambivalence hybridity among other terms. Cultural diversity and cultural difference were evident.
The Third space
The third area is a theory that explains the uniqueness of every person as a hybrid. The theory explains that there was inadequate and uneven cultural representation in the colonial period. The masters imposed strict rules of adherence to their culture. The third space indicated the area where the oppressed planned their freedom from the colonizer (Kraidy, p.45 2017).it also depicted the space where the colonizer and the colonized would come together freely and away from colonial pressure.it is characterized by ambivalence in connotation, explanation, and reception.
Critique of hybridity
The concept of hybridity became controversial after Bhabha's writing on presentation of hybridity to be depending intensely on cultures and identities.an assumption that Easthope argues that it does not exist in reality (Kraidy, p.50 2017). Besides Radhakrishnan contends that it is linked to the first world thinkers and can be traced to cultural imperialism. On the other hand, Robert young insinuates that hybridity brings back theories of origin that are meant to collapse and reinstates oppression.
Hybrid cultures refer to the synchronizing of diverse culture into one that can be adapted by all individuals. It connotes cultural manifestation, merges different practices and combines space and place.
Hybrid in media
It refers to the shift of focus by the media from national culture to the convergence of various practices obtained from different cultures (Papastergiadis p 52 2013). Hybrid media is the most modern and efficient media because it encompasses global techniques and cultures .it indicates traces of other cultures existing in every culture.
Hybrid programming this refers to the broadcasting done in multilingual and multicultural dimensions.it can be on radios, TVs and other programs (Papastergiadis p 57 2013).It is done with the aim of entertaining, enlightening and informing people from diverse cultural backgrounds with different languages. For instance, the SBS in Australia broadcast to people from various cultures.
It is referred to the Australias multicultural appreciation where the natives live in harmony with people from other origins. The SBS has played a significant role in appreciating ethnic groups and offering programs that incorporate their cultures
Balance between the global and the local Media
The global media has established programs that have reflected the culture of both the local and worldwide people. It embraces the culture of other ethnic groups through airing programs that promote the culture of the local population and the foreigners in Australia. Cohesion has been created by establishing broadcasting stations that meet the individual needs of the diverse cultures (Stromquist,and Monkman p.114 2014). For instance, the SBE meets yearly to discuss improvements and suggestions on how to enhance services of serving people from ethnic backgrounds all over the globe.
Appreciation of diversity
The global media has played a significant role in uniting people from diverse backgrounds through the use of technology in reaching people.it has also combined different cultural backgrounds through programs that foster cultural appreciation (Stromquist,and Monkman p.117 2014). The global media has also led to the free flow of information which boosts cohesion and enlightens people on the need to appreciate others without considering their national identities. Technology has broken geographical barriers and created a global village.
Theories and concepts
There are four theories of media and globalization. Firstly the theory of cosmopolitanism which refers to and a kind of orientation on the willingness and ability to engage with other cultures (Papastergiadis, p 67 2013). It is an approach that breaks rigidity in cultural diversification and enables people to appreciate the culture of others.
Detterioritalization this is an approach where people establish a new cultural home where they settle. They go beyond their national boundaries.it helps the media to learn other peoples cultures which show embracing and appreciation. Markowitz argues that the press has abolished traditional boundaries. Hall suggests that it has brought strengthening and erosion of ethnic cultures.
Network security- this theory explains that the societies have shifted focus from traditional ways of communication to use of technology.it has led to the establishment of a global village where the media can access information without covering geographical distance
Artz, L. and Kamalipour, Y.R. eds., 2012. Globalization of Corporate Media Hegemony, The: Evaluating California's Imprisonment Crisis. SUNY Press.
Bhabha, H., 2015. Debating cultural hybridity: Multicultural identities and the politics of anti-racism. Zed Books Ltd..Kraidy, M., 2017. Hybridity, or the cultural logic of globalization. Temple University Press.
Papastergiadis, N., 2013. The turbulence of migration: globalization, deterritorialization and hybridity. John Wiley & Sons.
Stromquist, N.P. and Monkman, K. eds., 2014. Globalization and education: Integration and contestation across cultures. R&L Education.
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