Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia - Essay Example

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Having considered the signs, symptoms and laboratory examination results, it is worth concluding that the patient in the case study is suffering from iron deficiency anemia. Although some of the signs and symptoms that Ms. A exhibits can be found in patients with other types of anemia, the laboratory values present a strong case for the iron deficiency type.

Iron deficiency anemia arises when the rate of loss of iron in the body is more than its replacement rate. The primary cause of this imbalance is the loss of bloody by whatever reason beyond the levels considered as conducive for the production of red blood cells (Camaschella, 2015).In context, the text in the case study indicates that Ms. A has been experiencing heavy menstrual periods for a period lasting at least 12 years. In spite of the medical interventions available for addressing Ms. As problem, it is indicative that the prolonged exposure to heavy bleeding may have caused harmful effects to affected persons, including the development of iron deficiency anemia. As Camaschella (2015) notes, heavy menstrual losses are well-known causes of iron-deficiency anemia in developed countries(p.1835).

Iron performs several biological functions in the body, including energy production, cell proliferation, and respiration (Camaschella, 2015). When blood loss occurs, the pressure in the vessels is reduced. As a result, the affected persons become dizzy. This is one of the symptoms exhibited by Ms .A. Besides, the loss of pressure in vessels invites the body to pull water from neighboring tissues in order to maintain optimum pressure in the vessels. In effect, blood becomes diluted and, therefore, hematocrit is reduced (Gupta, 2014; Miller, 2013). According to the information in the case study, hematocrit is 32.9%, a ratio that is below the optimum amount (at least 34.9%) for healthy persons. This is indicative of lack of blood, and the inability to replace the amount that is being lost suggests low levels of iron in Ms. As bloodstream.

An erythrocyte count of 3.1 x 10/mm is below the optimum RBC count. This count reinforces the idea of lack of iron in the body in the sense that the erythrocyte count recorded shows that the number of red blood cells is low. A low blood cells volume in the blood suggests that the production of these cells fails to meet the body demands. Moreover, the lack of any disorder with the bone marrow suggests that the low count is not a product of inhibition resulting from any disorder. Rather, it is motivated by the lack of sufficient amount of nutrients to stimulate adequate production of erythrocytes (Miller, 2013).

The shortness of breath is indicative of low hemoglobin occasioned by the abnormal loss of blood. In human beings, the average hemoglobin concentration is 16 g per100 ml (Gupta, 2014) as opposed to the 8g/100 ml indicated in the test results for the patient. Iron plays a significant role in hemoglobin synthesis (Gupta, 2014; Chen, 2007).The significantly low level of hemoglobin (8g/100 ml) is indicative of inadequate supply of iron hence the limited supply of oxygen to the patient. Since hemoglobin and its reduction affects transportation of oxygen, the shortness of breath is inevitable.

RBC smear showing microcytic and hypochromic cells further point to iron-deficiency anemia. The presence of these cells in the bloodstream indicates that red blood cells are not adequately supplied and do not have the right shapes to trap enough oxygen. As posted by Camaschella (2015), the presence of presence of microcytic hypochromic red cells is associated with low level of iron in the blood hence the conclusion that Ms. A suffers from iron deficiency anemia.



Camaschella, C. (2015). Iron-Deficiency Anemia. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(19), 1832-1843. doi:10.1056/nejmra1401038

Chen, J. (2007). Regulation of protein synthesis by the heme-regulated eIF2 kinase: relevance to anemias. Blood, 109(7), 2693-2699. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-08-041830

Gupta, D. C. (2014). Role of Iron (Fe) in body. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 7(11), 38-46. doi:10.9790/5736-071123846

Miller, J. L. (2013). Iron deficiency Anemia: A common and curable disease. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 3(7), a011866-a011866. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a011866



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