1. Define common Mode Rejection Radio (CMRR) of operational amplifier

Operational amplifier contains two inputs terminals which are positive and negative terminals applied at same point thus gives opposite polarity signals at the output at the output the terminals cancels out.

Recommend a circuit to measure CMRR

Four Precision resistor used to measure the Operational amplifier there is input of signals and differences are measured thus no change in the output

("Nonlinear Analyses of Feedback Miller Opamp," n.d., p. xx

Plot a graph of CMRR(in Db) versus Frequency (Hz)to prove the efficacy of OPAMP

1b Definition of slew rate regarding an operational amplifier?

SIs the difference between output voltage brought by step input voltage specified inVuS, production increases or decreases by IV unit micro second.

Slew rate measurement-It's the change in voltage at a given time -typically us or VMS

The device may have a slow rate of 10V/microseconds in that large step change on the input thus able to provide an output 10Volts difference in one microsecond.The operational amplifier has different slew rate for active and negative because of the circuit configuration.

Design operational amplifier circuit?

Its a case where capacitor and resistor are reversed completely, in that rectangular X connected to the inverting amplifier input terminals while Rf forms negative feedback

2a. Characteristics equations

Iin =IF and IF = -Vout /RF

Change on capacitor equals capacitance voltage across the capacitor.

Q=C Vin

The rate of change of this change is:

DQ/dt =C dvin/dt

dq/dt is the capacitor current i

Iin =Cdvin /dt=IF

Vout/Rf =Cdvin/dt

Vout=-RfC dvin/dt

2b. Operational amplifier differentiator waveforms.

If we apply clanging signals such as square wave, Triangular wave and Sine wave in the input.Signals;

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Square wave-is a non -sinusoidal periodic waveform in square waves are universally encountered in digital switching circuits and are naturally generated by binary (two-level) logic (Nelson, 1995, p. xx)

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Triangular wave-The circuit rounds off the point of the triangular wave form converting it into a sine wave.

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Sine wave -In this RC integrator converts the original pulse shaped input into ramp-up

2c. Modification of a high-frequency oscillator circuit with heated expiratory filter to prevent infectious pathogens transmission

It also does not affect tidal volume, and the filter material remains efficacious during oscillation. Amplitude varies under so deconditions. Avoiding the need for daily filter changes reduces the risk of alveolar de-recruitment.

3a.

Operational Amplifier, was used in the computing field to describe amplifiers that performed various mathematical operations (Cox, 2015, p. xx). It was found that the application of negative feedback around a high gain DC amplifier would produce a circuit with a precise gain characteristic that depended only on the feedback used. By the proper selection of feedback components, operational amplifier circuits could be used to add, subtract, average, integrate, and differentiate.

An operational amplifier can do limited only by the imagination and ingenuity of the user. With a good working knowledge of their characteristics, the user will be able to exploit more fully the useful properties of operational amplifiers.

3b.

The Colpitts oscillator is the combination of a transistor amplifier and an LC circuit which is used for feedback of the output signal ("Colpitts Oscillator: Design and Performance Optimization," 2014, p. xx)

fr=12pLCTfr output frequency in Hertz, R-Resistance in Ohms-Capacitance in Farads-Number of RC stages (N=3)

Amplifier gain =R2R1 - a Minimum gain of 2.9 to start the Oscillations.

R3 Provides the required feedback.

Amplifier gain =R2R1 =31 =3

required to start the Oscillator.

CT=C1 + C2 =0.24 + 0.024 =0.264u

RC Oscillator circuit the input is shifted 1800 through amplifier stage and 1800 again through a second inverting stage giving us 1800 + 1800=3600this giving us required positive feedback.

(iii) Amplifiers produce gain while filters alter the amplitude and for phase characteristics

of an electrical signal concerning its frequency.

As this amplifiers and filters use resistors, inductors or capacitor networks (RCL)

VoutVIN=1

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References

Colpitts Oscillator: Design and Performance Optimization. (2014). Journal of Electrical & Electronic Systems, 03(03). doi:10.4172/2332-0796.1000132

Cox, F. (2015). Operational amplifier selection guide for optimum noise performance. Analog Circuit Design, 937-938. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-800001-4.00437-3

Nelson, J. C. (1995). Introduction to Operational Amplifier Circuits. Operational Amplifier Circuits, 1-21. doi:10.1016/b978-0-7506-9468-1.50005-9

Nonlinear Analyses of Feedback Miller Opamp. (n.d.). The International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, 53-83. doi:10.1007/0-306-48013-1_4

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