Case Study Example: Adrenal and Urogynecologic Conditions

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691 words
Carnegie Mellon University
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Case study
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The most widely recognized bacterial diseases affecting ladies are urinary tract infections. The analysis and management of juvenile urinary tract disease may have similar clinical highlights found in diseases of the young and old (M. & J., 2007). Though most infections in the young patient request a full radiologic workup, the youngster with a UTI is not all that direct. The clinician must adjust being excessively powerful with being overly traditionalist in the analysis and management of these patients. UTIs happen most as often as possible among teenage females and are typically simple and not related with hidden anatomic variations from the norm. Juvenile UTI is linked with early sexual activity and is likewise more typical in voiding disorders. Mias case study addresses the potential diagnoses, treatment, and referral options available for the affected patient.

One of the tests and procedures that are employed to diagnose UTIs is a routine dip-stick urine sample analysis. From the above complaints, lower abdominal pains, lower back pains and burning with urination are possible indications of a urinary tract infection. Though in moderate quantities, the presence of leukocytes and nitrites is additionally an indication of a possible urinary tract infection. However, with the case of nitrites, a precise diagnosis might only be conceivable by an active culture acquired with a midstream urine sample. The urinalysis results present a specific gravity of 1.020 which falls within the expected range of 1.003-1.035 (Bawa, 2014). Finally, findings of 2+ proteinuria and fever are also possible indications UTIs. Thus, from the above results, the most likely diagnosis for Maya is pyelonephritis. Pyelonephritis and cystitis are both UTIs which almost share all the above symptoms, except symptoms of high fever and lower abdominal pains which are only associated with Pyelonephritis. Pyelonephritis is a UTI that affects the kidney causing inflammation of the kidneys and may lead to eventual kidney damage (DiMaria, Solan, & Gotter, 2016). This condition may occur as a result of the obstruction of the urinary tract or infection of the urethra. Unlike cystitis, pyelonephritis is accompanied by a high fever. Hence this can be used as a distinguishing factor.

Antibiotics are recommended as the first course of action for the treatment and management of pyelonephritis. Kids with acute pyelonephritis can successfully be treated with oral anti-toxins such as amoxicillin, or cefixime for about 10 to 14 days. Alternatively, short courses of two to four days of intravenous treatment followed by oral treatment are also viable. At whatever point conceivable, oral treatment ought to be used since it eases the treatment and enhances consistency. In cases of severe damage to the kidneys due to persistent infections, a referral for surgery (nephrectomy) would be necessary. Surgery would likewise be important to evacuate any hindrances or to deplete a swelling that doesn't respond to anti-infection agents.

Strategies such as counseling have been used to educate patients and parents on the treatment and management of pyelonephritis. During counseling, the parents and children are given information about the pathologic conditions. Also, it is imperative to inform patients about the etiology, treatment, procedures of aversion, and diagnosis with or without treatment. Furthermore, during counseling sessions, a healthcare plan where both the family and the clinician are comfortable with is selected and initiated (Burns et al., 2013).

In conclusion, pyelonephritis is an exceptionally hazardous UTI. It is imperative that doctors should ensure that patients together with their folks know about the likelihood of recurrence of the condition. Patients should comprehend the need to take precaution and to seek medical attention in case of any speculated reinfection. Additionally, healthcare specialist should ensure that after a diagnosis of pyelonephritis the patient and their kin are informed of the need of completing the treatment dosage, and future aversion techniques.



Bawa, D. R. (2014). Urinalysis: Chemical, Physical and Microscopic Examination of Urine. Virginia: Bawa Biotech LLC.

Burns, C. E., Dunn, A. M., Brady, M. A., Starr, N. B., & Blosser, C. G. (2013). Pediatric Primary Care (Fifth ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

DiMaria, C., Solan, M., & Gotter, A. (2016). Pyelonephritis: Understanding pyelonephritis. Retrieved from

M., H., & J., C. (2007, July). Review of adolescent urinary tract infection. Current Urology Reports, 8(4), 319-23.


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