What was the major purpose of the article?
The research was conducted to ascertain the notion of recognition without awareness by using as the primary material. It does this by providing reports of 4 experiments aimed at finding how people responded without awareness.
What, if any, where the hypotheses or research questions?
Two main research questions arise from this study. The first one is whether of recognition without awareness phenomenon can be shown using material and not complex patterns. Second, the article seeks to answer the question as to whether the concept relates to similar neural mechanisms (Craik, Rose & Gopie, 2015).
What sample was used in this research?
The sample used in the study were drawn from four main experiments aimed at studying the concepts of full attention (FA) and divided attention (DA). All the experiments had the same number of participants; however, each condition was tested by different numbers of participants. In the experiment first, the participants were 48 undergraduates from the University of Toronto with average age 18.9 years. The second experiment had the same number participants as the first one and tested under the same circumstances. The mean age was 19.0 years. All the remaining experiments the same sample number of participants with different mean ages. There means age was 18.8 year for FA and 18.6 for DA (Craik, Rose & Gopie, 2015).
What types of methods of data collection were used?
The data was collected through scientific test and observation. The participants were provided with the Tetris computer games referred to as color judgment experiments and then engaged in an explicit recognition memory task under full attention condition.
What were the results and conclusions of this research?
The results based on the four experiments indicated that a measure of recognition without awareness does not have a systematic variation with FA/DA at the encoding. The results further provided a little evidence of variation for the idea that P(c)/0 as a function of context changes the ones experience between encoding and retrieval of information. However, it also realized that there might be a change in the criterion if a zero-confidence response is given. Based on these findings, it can be deduced that the criterion used may be based on the final 4-AFC test. As such, those tests deemed as easy may yield many 1 and 2 judgments only in the presence of the target and few decisions in the absence of the target.
In conclusion, the four-experiment shown in the article provided a clear evidence about the reality of recognition without awareness especially for words exposed for several seconds. It is indeed true from the finding that the existence of the such a phenomenon is expected since its effects may have been reported a while back.
What is your opinion or reaction to this research?
This research paper is detailed hence giving a clear picture of how recognition without awareness works. It is important to note that the evidence that relates to verbal materials appears indirect; therefore, the sense that correct decision may be made. Moreover, the study answers one critical question on whether the phenomenon could lead to a condition allowing the participants to choose words correctly. The researcher has arranged his work in a chronological manner beginning with the introduction right to the conclusion hence making the report easy to follow. Moreover, the researcher has used simple words which are easy to comprehend.
Craik, F. M., Rose, N. S., & Gopie, N. (2015). Recognition without Awareness: Encoding and Retrieval Factors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, And Cognition, 41(5), 1271-1281.
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