Some Questions on Sociology and Psychology

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882 words
George Washington University
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1. Theories of Socialization

Firstly, Psychoanalytic theory revolves around the Id, Ego and the superego. It outlines that one is socially active due to the forces between the Id and the superego and also the unconscious mind shapes behavior. Object relation theory is where one identifies with same-sex parent and the social relationship acquired in childhood forms the adulthood personality. Social learning theory is dependent on the response to the social stimuli in the environment. According to George Herbert Mead, symbolic interaction theory is viewing you in the perspective of others. The functional theory is where one internalizes the roles he/she is expected to play in society, and this reinforces the social consensus. Lastly, the conflict theory brings out socialization in the context of the inequalities of the system of power that value some locations than others.

However, all these theories have some significance contribution to the social behavior of a person but symbolic interaction seems be true since it involves the most crucial stages of one self that is imitation, play and game stages.

2. My Behavior Pattern

Among the many behavior patterns in my life, working harder has continually stood up in every aspect of my life, and I have accepted it as part of my life. It stood up when I was young where everyone used to say am too serious in everything that I do despite how dangerous or just a game. I would put my all strength in it until I achieved or completed the task. If it was my socialization with people, I could not have realized it. My family constantly encouraged me on it and would offer any tool for my success especially in my school life. My peers and schoolmates helped me but not without some negativity but to overcome this, I would regularly help them out. Mass media has been so helpful to me since all the information I want available at the click of a button. And its the most efficient agent of socialization together with Peers since this is where the life of a child revolves around.

Chapter 3

1. Key elements of culture

These features include; Symbols these are things that stand for something and often frequently induce some emotions. Language is the most important since its how communications are carried out in any society. Norms are standards and expectations in a society which can either be formal or informal. Values are the judgment of what is right and dangerous or desirable or undesirable. Rituals are procedures and formalities that typically mark changes of a life course. Lastly is the Artifacts which are material objects that constitute a societys material culture.

2. Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis

This is a controversial theory composed by Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin Whorf hence the name Sapir- Whorf Hypothesis. It outlined that there are certain thoughts of an individual that cannot be understood by those living in another language. The hypothesis has the great version which describes that language determines hidden ideas and that linguistic categories limit cognitive categories whereas the weak version outlines that linguistic categories only influences opinions and decisions.


Ethnocentrism is viewing that ones culture is the superior one and other cultures can be measured using it. Such a person is concerned with how similar other cultural practices, beliefs and symbols are to their own. While Cultural relativism is where one believes that the culture of individuals serves a particular need and must be viewed in the perspective of the people inhabiting these areas. This is often the approach of most social scientists working with people.


Ethnocentrism becomes problematic in social research in that it creates biases in their assumptions about a particular culture's values beliefs and symbols. It creates a lot of unhealable conclusions this is because ethnocentric tends to praise their culture in the expense of the other culture. Hence, social researchers find it difficult to come up with a comprehensive report on their research.

#5. The nature versus nurture debate is an endless scientific, cultural and philosophical debate if the human culture is attributed to their nature or nurture. Where nature is the genetic or in other words behaviors influenced by hormones and while nurture is the environment and humans know-how. As much as these two have raised a lot of arguments, they remain inseparable, and they significantly influence one another.


Subculture are those groups with value and norms similar to those held by the majority within the same culture. Some subcultures are deviant. According to Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin, deviant subcultures are those that differ substantially from the majority of the people in the society. For example, the Mafias which are termed as the most dangerous gang and the Bikers gang. Also, poverty can lead to a subculture in a society where most people are middle classes or the rich.


Influence of global culture to the local culture include the availability of cheap foreign foods they tend to displace local farmers who have traditionally earned a living through the production of this food in their small lands and selling them locally. Also, exposure of foreign cultural goods through globalization has led to people forgetting their beliefs, values and believes, for example, the mode of dressing according to most traditions trousers were clothes for men now women are comfortable wearing them.


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