Introduction. Demographics of Chile.
Demography is the statistical study of people or population. It follows that demography includes studying of various dynamics in a given population of individuals which can be in the form of population size, structure and its distribution over a given geographical region. Some of the features used in describing the demographics of people encompass birth, migration, deaths and other attributes which are significant in describing different aspects of the population. Chile is one of the Latin America countries, whose demographics can be used to highlight various demographic trends and features depicted in this region (Bonnefoy, 2011). Ethnicity, economic status, and the population density are some of the factors that play a significant role in analyzing the people of Chile. This paper is therefore focused on analyzing the different demographic trends in Chile.
The Ancestry Structure of Chileans.
Apparently, Chile is deemed to be a multiethnic society. As a country, it is inhabited by people from diverse ethnic backgrounds. This can be attributed to the presence of the Native Americans, Europeans, and people from African origin in Chile. Through the use of the admixed individuals genomes, scientists have been able to conceal the genetic basis of diseases as well as the demographic history of different populations in the world (Martinez, Manevy, & Vial, 2015). Irrespective of genetic underlying, many Chileans usually identify themselves with a white race. Historians purport that Chile did not have adequate features that might have attracted scores of immigrants. Geographically, Chile is located far away from Europe. It was deemed to be a remote country regarding its proximity to Europe thus dissuading people from moving and settling in this region. For instance, the 1907 census in Chile was dominated with the aspect element of the Chilean versus.
In 1885, it was observed there was a massive population increase in Chile was linked to the countrys annexation of three different provinces after the completion of the Pacific War, culminated with the ultimate conquest of the Araucania (Bonnefoy, 2011). It should also be noted that the European migration in Chile did not bring significant changes in the Chilean ethnic composition except the region of Magellan. The Spanish immigrants in Chile formed a significant portion of the Europeans who were moving and settling in Chile in the 18th century. On another hand, Chiles neighboring countries such as Argentina and Uruguay was characterized by massive numbers of the European immigrants. It is, however, imperative to acknowledge the significant role played by the immigrants in the Chilean society.
According to Martinez, Manevy, & Vial (2015), Chile received a 0.5% of European immigrants between 1851 and 1925 As compared to a 45% and 30% of the Argentinians and Brazilian immigrants who entered Chile. These trends are as result of a vast number of migration activities taking place across the Atlantic as compared to Pacific. These forms of movements also took place before the construction of the Panama Canal (Martinez, Manevy, & Vial, 2015). From these findings, it can be alleged that European immigrants in 18th had preferred to settle near their homelands as opposed to making long tours across the passages of Megallen or moving through The Andes. In the long run, this reduced the number of European immigrants who settled in Chile.
It is also revealed that people originating from Spain and Basque country formed a large population of individuals who entered the post-independence Chile. Such origins have made most of the Chileans to have at least one surname from Basque. Apart from Spanish migrants, Chile is also characterized by other immigrants from different regions. They are in the form of the Italians, Germans, British, Scots, Croats, and Greeks. (Martinez, Manevy, & Vial, 2015). For instance, in the 1850s, there was a significant German immigration in Chile and eventually establishing the foundation for the development of the German-Chilean community. The Chilean government supported the Germans to colonize the southern region. This move had a great implication not only on the cultural composition of the southern province of Chile but also on the genetic structure of the entire society. During this period, southern Chile was sparsely inhabited making it easy to trace the German immigrants in the region. This prompts Martinez, Manevy, & Vial, (2015) to assert that approximately 500000 Chileans are considered to be the descendants of the immigrants from German.
Croats are also important immigrant groups when it comes to analyzing the history and ancestry of the Chileans. Currently, the descendants of the Croats in Chile are about 400,000 people who translate to a 2.4% of the entire population of the Chile. Other ancestry groups include the British immigrants who represent approximately 4.5% of the contemporary of the people of the Chileans. The Italian immigrants account to close to 600000 descendants (Bonnefoy, 2011). Currently, the Chileans of Greek origin are said to close to 110,000 with most of them settling around Santiago. Other significant ancestry groups include the French, Austrians, and Dutch. All these groupings are important as far as understanding the lineage structure of the Chileans is concerned.
Ethnic groups in Chile.
In 2012, I had been anticipated that Chile population would reach 17million people thus elevating Chile to be seventh as the country with the largest population in Latin America. The Chilean population is composed of 95% whites and mestizo (which is a combination of people from the white and Amerindian races). The rest of the population is characterized by a 3% of Amerindians and other minority ethnic groups (Stephens, 2011). Apparently, the interactions and intermarriages of the Andalusians, the Basques, and the Araucanians paved the way for the primary Chilean race. The Mapuches, who are considered to be an indigenous population are close to 600000 and mainly reside in Temuco and partly in the forest region bordering Bio-Bio River. The remnants of other minor tribal groupings in Chile are typically found in the oases in the northern desert, with others leading a nomadic life in the archipelagos and islands that extend to the southern coast of Chile (Martinez, Manevy, & Vial, 2015). It is also revealed that small section of the Germans, together with their descendants have inhabited Valdivia-Puerto in Montt area. (Castillo-Feliu, 2000).
Currently, Chile boasts of the population of 15 million people who fall in different categories of the ethnic groups. Chile is among the largest countries in South America, occupying the land between the Pacific Ocean and Andes (Elisha, 2017). Chiles next neighboring countries include Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina. In the 16th century, Chile was conquered and eventually colonized by Spanish rulers. Later on, in 1818, Chile was able to overcome the Spanish reign, thus becoming an independent and sovereign state. Since independence, Chile has enjoyed great stability in its socio-economic and political factors translating into economic freedom, improved per capita and overall human development. According to Elisha (2017), Chile is made up of different ethnic groups which have been significant in the growth of the country.
European ethnic group is considered to be the majority of the Chilean population consisting of a 59% of the countrys entire population. The European emigrants arrived in Chile primarily from Spain due to the Spanish colonization in this nation. The arrival of the European immigrants coincided with a revitalization of the Chiles economy which promoted the rise of the social hierarchy. The European ethnicity is composed of Italians, the Croats, French, Germans and British (Stephens, 2011). It follows that the European ethnic group in Chile is made up of various cultures and traditions which are affiliated to these countries of origin. The immigrants from who formed the European ethnic group have played an integral when it comes to transforming the social, economic, political and cultural fortunes of Chile.
Mestizo is the second largest ethnicity in Chile. This section of people is equivalent to a 25% of the total population of Chile. Apparently, the Mestizo was a Spanish term which was coined to mean an amalgamation of the people from the European and Amerindian lineage. Subsequently, Mestizo has always been used to identify individuals of mixed ethnicity residing in Latin America (Elisha, 2017). The Mestizo community encountered a significant growth during the colonization of different Latin American countries, rapidly developing into a dominant and influential ethnic group in Chile during that period.
Mapuche is also another important ethnic group in Chile. Apparently, Mapuche is the aboriginal population of the South-Central Chile as well as the southern regions of Argentina. Mapuche consisted of people from different ethnic groups who shared similar socioeconomic, religious and dialectal structures or frameworks. The existence of the Mapuche community in Chile goes back to 600 BC. They have differing features from the native people of Patagonia (Bonnefoy, 2011). According to the recent census reports, Mapuche is the largest ethnicity in Chile, with a 9% of the countrys total population. The education sector implemented in Chile do not promote the language used by people from Mapuche ethnicity.
Modernity has led to many changes to the structures of various ethnic groups in Chile. The contemporary society, through an application of current immigration policies, has ensured that there is a free influx of immigrants from many parts of the world. This has led to a great cultural diversity which accommodates people from different ethnic groups. Furthermore, Chile is deemed to be a multicultural country due to the immigrants who comes from all continents (Elisha, 2017). Minority ethnic groups such as Africans, Aymara, Yagan, Kawesqar and Likan Antai have led to an increased Chilean diversity. Cultural diversity in Chile has resulted in the development of a region which is tolerant and accommodates people across the globe.
Chile Population Rates
Chiles official census in Chile took place in 2002, which indicated that the countrys population stood at 15 million people. Currently, Chiles population is estimated to be 18191900 making it be 62nd country with the largest population on earth. Chiles population has experienced steady growth for the past six decades. For instance, in 1950, the countrys population was 6 million. Between the period 1960 and 2012, Chiles population growth grew by a 127% (World Population Review, 2017). Chile is also considered to be the most prosperous and stable country in the region especially when it comes to the efforts taken in improving the income per capita, human development, low corruption incidences, and globalization. The total population in the corresponding cities in Chile are less than 1 million people. However, this population is significant when the metropolitan area is included. For instance, Santiago Metropolitan region is characterized by a 7.2 million inhabitants, hence representing the most populated as well as the densest areas in Chile.
Chile has a higher life expectancy than any other Latin America country. The general life expectancy of Chilean population is 80.1 years. It is also revealed that countrys fertility rate has declined from 2.6 to 1.8 in 1990 and 2013 respectively. Regardless of Chiles lower population growth, the country has endured an increased rates of immigration. According to the reports published by World Population Review, Chiles legal immigration grew by 91% from 2002 to 2010 (World Population Review, 2017). T...
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