A.) The study states that young students tend to identify themselves with the adults of the same gender; for instance, having a teacher who is anxious of mathematics may reinforce the general perception that only boys can do better in mathematics.

b.) It is elementary education major at the college level has the highest number of students who are the most anxious about Math. The study recommends that future generation teachers need to develop positive attitudes and strong Math skills because they have a great effect on learners (Schmid, 2010).

c.) To help my students become less anxious about Math I would do the following: First, I would try to instill positive attitude on them to eradicate the stereotypical belief that only certain gender or sex is better in Math. Secondly, I would engage them in Math activities as frequent as possible; for instance, hold a Math contest in class thrice a week apart from the normal Math lessons so as to inculcate the positive attitude in learners about the subject.

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Negative Numbers Subtraction

a.) 82 b.) 405

-39 -327

43 78

Front-End Subtraction (Mexican)

276606011239584985489834a.) 82 80 9b.) 405 400 27

27660601111259251581100790 -39 302 -327 300 5

43 50 7 78 100 22

50- 7 = 43 100-22 = 78

Convert into Hindu Arabic (10+10+1+1+1)X 1 = 23

(1+1+1) X 60 +1 = 181

(1+1) + (10+ 1+1+1) = 15

(10+1+1+1) + (10+1) = 24

Convert into Babylonian

Value Units X60 X3600

10+10+1+1+1+1 << |||| 60+1+1+1+1 |||| | 10X60+1+1 < || < (3600X1)+(60X1)+(10+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1) < |||||||| | |

Lack of Zero in Babylonian

The Babylonian number system did not have zero; therefore, instead of 10 the number system included the use of base 60 (also called sexagesimal). Although the number zero means nothing but it helps in identifying a number and avoids ambiguity that may emerge from the number writing. Without the number zero it would be difficult to figure out what order of the magnitude is given to a given number when written. For instance, it would be difficult to know whether someone meant to write number 2 or 120. Therefore, every number is multiplied with the power of sixties to give the number 1. For instance, 2 can be written as 2/60 and multiplied by 60 to give the number 2. 120 can be understood as 120/60 multiplied by 60 to give 120. Therefore, the Babylonians used reciprocal bases to get the number intended without using zero.

a). If the first number is in 60s it could be (1+1)60+1 = 121

b.) If the number is in 3600s it could be (1+1) 3600 + 1 = 7201

a.) Convert 114 into base 4

114= 57X2 +(0)

57= 25X2 + (7)

25= 5X5 + (0)

5= 2X2 + (1)

2= 0X4 + (2)

Hence 114 = (21070)4

b.) 416 into base 10 = (23)10

c.) 10011012 into base 10

1X26+0X25+0X24+1X23+1X22+0X21+1X20= (77)10

d.)75 into binary =

75 =37X2 (+1) remainder 1

37 = 18X2 + (1) remainder 1

18 = 9X2 + (0) remainder 0

9 = 4X2 + (1) remainder 1

4 = 2X2 + (0) remainder 0

2 = 2X0 +1 (remainder 0

Hence10011012 = (101011)10

272 into base 12

272/12 = 22 remainder 8

22/12 = 1 remainder 10

10/12 = 0 remainder 8

Hence 272 = 810812

1657 into base 10 =

Get first base 7 = 1

Multiply by 7 = 7

Add the next digit, 7+6 = 13

Multiply by 5 = 65

Hence 1657 = 6510

Counting challenge: When counting in base 5, the next value after 1245 is found by converting the value into base 10 first then adding the value 1. For instance, 2410 + 1 = 2510 then convert this value into base 5 which is 605

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Reference

Schmid, R. E. (2010). Girls may learn math anxiety from female teachers. USA Today.

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