Schwarz and Hackman (1994) established three principles needed for groups to work effectively. Firstly, the effective group provides results exceeding the expectations of the stakeholders. Secondly, the members use processes to execute their work are compatible with the current job and for future projects effectively. Finally, all the members are experienced the needs of each member of the group. The group teamed up by Bernie Hollis, and Pete Denson has been working together since the foundation of West Coast Transit. They have been using processes that produce positive effects on the organization. They are aware of each others needs. For instance, Tanney is aware of family problems that her colleague Lea Jing is going through and aware of the counseling session she attends.
Tuckmans Group theory was developed in 1965 as a reference for operational team leadership and formation. The model shows that the group does not begin as an effective group formed in by the members and functional but rather it goes through stages of evolution. Initially, Tuckman had proposed four stages of group formation and then provided an additional stage. Tuckman is a recognizable psychologist as he fast described the four phases of the assemblage formation. He observed the small groups behavior in various setups and straddling the stages of the various groups and concluded that before the groups reach their maximum operation, they went through all the four stages of development. Later. in 1977, Tuckman together with Mary Jensen revised the phases of group development and provided an additional phase totaling to five stages. The following are the stages of team development.
Phase 1: training
The behavior of an individual is channeled by the motive to accommodate other the way they are, shun controversial acts and disagreement. The pressing issues and personal emotions are set aside to focus on the main activity that brought them together and work as an organization. At this phase, there is information collection and impressing other, and the objective of the project the best way to tackle it. What the conflict involves is not very much preventable.
Phase 2: Storming
Rivalry and disagreement are got into their personal interaction aspect according to their activity- role aspect. At planning of how to handle the task progresses, the conflict ends up breaking from their interpersonal interactions. The group members have to transform their feeling beliefs, insolences, and ideologies to conform to the groups intended motives. Members are naive about each others dedication and responsibilities because of fear of failure. Conflict will not masquerade as team issues although it exists. The disagreement will arise about the organization authority, leadership, supremacy, and structure of the team. Discomfort arises, and some members like Jon Mahonney mute as Katarina Tanney, Lea Jing and Pete Denson argue on personal grounds and the demands the task commands. The individual evolves from testing and justification state of mind to devising ways to solve the problem in the next stage
Phase 3: Norming
Solidarity has grown among members and is involved in appreciating contributions from individuals of the group, working together to solve problems and encouraging each other. Individuals are accepting ideas from other people that are proving to be better than theirs based on facts contributed to the table. Genuine and productive questions are asked by each member and answers are provided. Change of responsibility based on the individual responsible for the main factor on the discussion table is encouraged. There is successful data flow and contribution, sharing of ideologies and complimenting positive responses. Exploring alternative options concerning the project and creativity is at peak.
Phase 4: Performance
Interdependence from individuals in the group as they ability, depth and series of interpersonal interaction are enlarged. They can work in total cohesion, interdependency and in small teams within the group comfortably and in an accommodative way. According to each members strengths and abilities, the roles and responsibilities of individuals shifts to achieve maximum productivity. Individuals are dependent on each other in problem-solving involving the project at hand. In this phase members are assured on their roles and strengths consciousness is reigning project. Loyalty, mojo, and self-awareness are high, the collective objective shifts to solving the problem and working together in the process.
Phase 5: Adjourning
Terminating the project after objectives have been achieved and dissolving of relations finalizes the group formation stage. Individual participation and contribution are acknowledged, and each member is given an opportunity to share their remarks and say goodbyes to each other. Tasks are concluded, and detachment processes are vibrant on the main activities of the organization.
The Three Behavior Theory of Sachin
The theory is based on cultural levels of an organization: artifacts, principles and assumed values. The preceding level is exemplified by the ease of view, hearing and feeling by the member. The office layout, conduct and dressing of worker, and the objective of the organization. These are cultural values that define an organization and are described as the artifacts. The second level, principles/values, contribute to the determining the culture of the organization. The attitudes and cognitive process of the workers are the main determinants of the working climate of every organization. the atmosphere of a working organization depends on how the workers view their roles in the organization depending on the tasks they perform.
Lastly, assumed values, also contribute to the attitude of the organization. The assumed essentials and opinions of the worker influences organizations culture. These are the human nature inner characteristics. For instance, when the meeting went beyond 5:00 pm, women are not comfortable doing meeting beyond working hours, and thus Lea Jing left earlier. These factors do not need to be spelled out; it is what makes the employees who they are.
Personal factors the affected Jing contributed to Tanney out raging at Pete to put across the different nature they both have, male and female. Jing is willing to work with the group but not with Pete coming at her without caring about her well-being first. For the group to work some ground setting should be established to where each member will be comfortable working from.
There was effective communication both verbal and written. Communication on the meeting where the agenda was sent to all the participants of the group and knew how to respond the factors that were raised. Though the groups meeting did not take off on good term, the members were informed of all the factors that were raised in the meeting. Effective communication is determined whether information got across the intended party regardless of communication channel.
Types of conflicts
There are two types of conflict, functional and dysfunctional conflicts. Functional conflicts are where disagreement and the opposing side are supporting the achieving goals of the organization. In this case, Jing is against Pete for not acknowledging her private life misgiving by she is willing to set some energy to work the project once Pete has apologized for his rudeness. Dysfunctional conflict is the development of disagreement which acts as a barrier to the achievement of the organizations goals. For the case, Tanney and Jing are against the project indicating it is massive and unattainable. The conflict is not too much, but still, it opposed the progress of the project.
Denson can utilize compromise as a direct conflict management strategy. He can step away from the argument and allow other members to contribute and support his proposal. Like he stayed quiet and allowed Mahonney to contribute and convince the other member of the need to work together to achieve the objectives of the project and the organization at large. Also, Denson can accommodate Jing and apologize for being insensitive to her personal life. The accommodation is an indirect approach to give the other conflicting party their way for the greater good of getting along and working together to achieve the goals of the organization.
Leadership and maintenance activity
Task-oriented leadership should be encouraged in this case to facilitate the organization to achieve its project goal. Task-oriented leadership focuses on three main factor: plans, structure, and schedule. The leadership should be able to form a structure of operation as to facilitate the accomplishment of the project, assigning roles to each member to achieve the project goals. A schedule of the project and deadlines are also to be met given the six weeks before launching their additional aircraft. A plan can be most effective to facilitate a smooth running of the project through the schedules and plans.
Disruptive behavior to be discouraged
Refocusing the agenda by raising personal issues in the meeting turns out to be disruptive and hinder the progress of the main agenda. When Tanney raised Jing condition instead of the group finding the best strategy to tackle the project time was used to argue about Jings condition and how Denson does not care.
Individual motivational problem experience by Tanney, Jing, and Mahonney
Jing has low self-confidence regarding what she is going through in her family relationship. He feels she does not have the energy to perform the needed tasks. She wants to leave the exact time the working hours are over. Mahoney and Tanney, on the other hand, have a fear of failure pointing out that the project is massive and unattainable within the stipulated time. Tanney points out that there is no extra payment for working over working hours. It shows she has low expectations for the project to succeed.
Denson should apologize to Jing and encourage her to work together with the rest of the team. He should remind her of the reason she is to be transferred to another department with high profile position. Dansen can help Tanney to get employees working under her volunteer and contribute to the organization and asking for remuneration for working over working hours. Mahonney needs to be encouraged on team work and commitment to work together as a team to achieve the projected goals set by their managers.
Agarwal, S. & Adjirackor, T. (2016). Impact of Teamwork on Organizational Productivity in Some Selected Basic Schools in The Accra Metropolitan Assembly. European Journal of Business, Economics and Accountancy, 4(6), 1-40
Morgeson, F. P., DeRue, D. S., & Karam, E. P. (2010). Leadership in teams: A functional approach to understanding leadership structures and processes. Journal of management, 36(1), 5-39.
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