Course Work on Nursing: Nightingale's Environment Theory

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Carnegie Mellon University
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Course work
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Primary Concepts The Environment theory has four main concepts. These concepts include a person, nursing, disease and the environment.

Definitions Health is the ability to maintain bodys well-being by the use of an individuals power to the fullest extent.

The disease is the absence of comfort in an individual.

Nursing is defined as activities that are useful in the promotion of health in the care giving environment.

A person is a being that is multidimensional and is composed of psychological, social, biological and spiritual aspects.


The theory assumes that learning is the basis of the acquisition of nursing skills.

Unique Features and Characteristics The uniqueness of the theory is the fact that it is dependent upon personal experience and observations of Florence Nightingale.


The greatest advantage of the theory is the belief in the manipulation of the surrounding to achieve desired health outcome in patients. This has been proven through research to be possible as it involves the observation of patients.

The essential aspects of healing as discussed in this theory have been used in the entire globe to ensure the well-being of the sick.


The theory fails to mention clear procedure on how extremely dependent patients should be handled. The care givers of these patients are most disadvantaged because the lack of proper care would cause psychological torture which would negatively affect the healing process. On the other, the postulation by this theory that disease is as a result of spontaneous occurrence is not also very accurate.

Where applicable

(public sector/public administration the theory application if possible) The theory is applied in nursing care by individualizing nursing care to be observant and act appropriately to the signs and symptoms of disease observed.

The quality of health care has been improved by continuous education just as proposed by this theory.

The theory also finds application in control and management of disease severity.

Nurses advise patients on how to improve the skin integrity by the use of the fundamental aspects of hygiene highlighted by the theory such as sunlight, fresh air, and cleanliness.

Questions or concerns

How does the theory affect the modern day nursing?

Does the influence of this theory result into desirable results in nursing practice?

Are there methods in nursing practice that can be used to test this theory?

Personal Experience

(if none state No, or None.) Yes, I had an experience of the application of this theory when I had a fungal infection in my feet. The Nurses had insisted that I keep my feet clean and dry always and on ensuring there is proper flow of air in my feet by wearing open shoes.

Results of your experience (+ -) The results were positive for the fungal infection healed within a short period.

Theory: Roys Adaptation Model of Nursing

Primary Characteristics The Adaptation model of nursing incorporate concepts from a variety of theories including perceptions from Harry Helsons Theory of perception, the System model of Ludwig Von and System definition as explained by Anatol Rapoport. The concepts are summarized into a person, adaptation, environment, nursing, and health.

Definitions Environment- circumstances, conditions, and influences that impact the expansion and behavior of people as an adaptive process.

Person- holistic beings with an adaptive system who interact with the surrounding constantly.

Health- the ability to cope with unhappiness, diseases, stress and to avoid death proficiently.

Nurses- people who facilitate adaptation.

Adaptation- the process in which humans use conscious awareness and choice for the realization of integration between them and the environment.


The theory has scientific and physiological assumptions.

The scientific assumptions include:

Progression of systems of matter and energy to greater levels of the complex organization.

Thinking and feeling are the foundations of awareness of self and environment.

The integration of creative process is as a result of humans decisions.

Human actions are mediated by thinking and feeling.

Fostering of independence, protection and acceptance are part of the system relationships.

The earth and people are assumed to possess a common pattern and vital association.

Human consciousness models people and environmental modifications.

Adaptation is created by the integration of human and environment.

Philosophical Assumptions are as follows:

The people, God, and the world are believed to have a cordial association.

Omega point convergence of the Universe is the foundation of human existence.

The diversity of creation and its common idea of common destiny reveals Gods true nature.

The creative abilities of enlightenment, faith, and awareness are the most useful to every individual in the society.

It is the duty of humans to sustain and transform the universe.

Unique Features and Characteristics The unique feature is the relationship described of how the persons interact with the environment to achieve adaptation. This is described in four adaptive models which are self and role concept, physiological needs and interdependence.


The theory is consistent with other validated concepts, models, and theories within the nursing practice.


The span of time for achieving adaptation is not defined.

Where applicable

(public sector/public administration application if possible) Applied in research variables, gaining scientific knowledge and in guiding nursing practice.

Questions or concerns

Whether adaptation is achievable instantly?

Personal Experience

(if none state No, or None.) None

Results of your experience (+ -) -

Theory: Life Perspective Rhythm Theory by Joyce Fitzpatrick

Primary Concepts

The basic concepts of the theory are health, person, wellness and illness, and meta paradigm.


A person is defined as an open system that is characterized by well-known human rhythm.

Health is considered to be a state of well-being that results due to human and environmental interaction.

Nursing is defined as a field of study whose primary concern is the meaning that is attached to life.

Metaparadigm is referred to like the changes that occur in the transition from the basic concepts of this theory.


Rhythms of continuous environment-people interaction is a characteristic of the process of human development.

The enhancement of the development process towards good health is the primary focus of the nursing practice.

The nursing profession is greatly concerned with the understanding of the basic understanding of the existence of the humans.

Thoughts can be shared through language based on communication provision given by the labeling concept.

Unique Features and Characteristics The theory is complex and provides a taxonomy that can be used to identify and label concepts of nursing to leave room for the communication with others and recognition.


It allows universal recognition and communication with other theories in nursing. It is useful in promoting wellness among the patients.


It does not give a direct solution to the state of the patients.

Where applicable

(public sector/public administration application if possible) Applied in the gaining of nursing knowledge that would help promote the nursing profession to higher levels.

Questions or concerns

Is there another perspective that could best describe the human existence at the most basic levels?

Personal Experience

(if none state No, or None.) None

Results of your experience (+ -) -

Theory: Transcultural theory

Primary Concepts

The main concepts of this theory include cultural competence, cultural influences, illness and well-being, and cultural and religious knowledge.


Transcultural nursing- a study of nursing with the objective of finding out comparisons across human groups.

Culture is defined as the shared habits, beliefs, and custom that are handed down from one generation to another in certain communities.

Religion is defined as obedience and belief in supernatural powers or divine being who is believed to have created the world.

Ethnic is defined by this theory as a group of people with common and idiosyncratic culture.

Ethnicity is the awareness of belonging to a particular cultural group.

A cultural identity is an act of being part of the certain culture.

Diversity is the act of being different in a group of people.


It assumes that culture is a very critical aspect of the nursing profession.

Culture has no barrier to any sphere of human existence.

Unique Features and Characteristics The theory focuses on culture which is a very critical aspect of human life and survival. All beliefs in human life are mainly drawn from their culture.


Appreciation of individuals diversity is useful in designing the best care for each.


The theory does not well explain how nurses should acquire cultural competency given the fact that culture is so diverse.

Where applicable

(public sector/public administration application if possible) This theory finds application in both public and private sector especially in developing and promoting programs that enhance physical, spiritual, physical and emotional self-care to introduce best therapies in nursing practice.

Questions or concerns

Should culture be part of the curriculum in the acquisition of knowledge leading to nursing profession?

Would implementation of this theory lead to segregation of people which would ultimately lead to ethnic biases or racial discrimination?

Personal Experience

(if none state No, or None.) Yes, I had personal experience while being handled by a nurse of American origin.

Results of your experience (+ -) The nurse tried to talk in a way I could understand, and they enquired about the do and done concerning my intakes. This made me comfortable in the hospital and thus promoted my healing process.

Summary of the theories

Environment theory by Florence Nightingale

The theory of Environment by Florence Nightingale is anchored upon the belief that the environment is used for the recovery process of the patient. She argues that the nurses should make use of the healing power of the environment to ensure the well-being of the patients in the nursing sector. The theory focusses on the use of all the external factor that surrounds the patient to ensure their health state. This theory could be applied both in a hospital setting, and even home setting provided appositive outcome is desired. It does not discriminate but gives clear and best means of achieving good health (Neils, 2010)

Adaptation model theory

Sister Callista Roy in this theory views patients as beings who are struggling to strike a balance between so many stimuli. The balance is what results in good health. The achievement of the balance according to this theory is defined as an adaptation. Without adaptation, it would be impossible for the patients survive the conditions that are ailing them. The theory borrows from many other theories thus it is widely accepted among nurses to be useful for the profession (Bobratz, 2003).

Life Perspective Rhythm theory

Life perspective Rhythm theory is considered to be a complex nursing theory that contributes mainly to the gaining of nursing knowledge. This theory would help in the grouping of nursing concepts to ensure their world wide acceptance. A nursing career cannot achieve gold standards if the framework for the standard practice is not known by every nurse. Life Perspective theory is the key to such a new dimension in the nursing career. Though it does not...

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