Distinguish between infectious and non-infectious diseases
Infectious diseases are diseases which are mainly transmitted through pathogenic microorganisms which include such organisms as the bacteria, viruses and others like fungi or parasite and the diseases are transmitted through direct or in directly from one person to another. On the other hand, non-infectious diseases are those diseases which are not caused by pathogens or microorganisms and also cannot be transmitted from one person to another or be shared from one person to another.
Noninfectious diseases can also be caused by the environmental factors, nutritional deficiency and also the lifestyle of the individual. As opposed to the infectious diseases, noninfectious diseases are always not communicable.
Give examples of different types of pathogens-prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists, and animals.
Includes such microorgani9sms like the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), T4 bacteriophage.Fungi
Includes, yeast, mold, and mushroom.Bacteria
They include E coli, Listeriosis and Salmonella
Includes organisms such as human beings, donkeys, and cows
Transmission, prevention, and control of infectious diseases
Describe the methods by which pathogens may be transmitted between hosts, and what human can do to reduce the risk of infection.
Pathogens can be transmitted through various methods between the host and this include such processes like
This method of transmission is also known as the respiratory route. It is a mode of transmission which involves different or many infectious agents. Examples of the above method of transmission include such situation like when a person sneezes or5 coughs on another person or the second party then the microorganisms may enter the body of the other person through the nose, mouth or the eye.
Transmission by direct contact
There are also other infectious diseases which can be transmitted through direct contact. Those diseases are called contagious diseases. They can also be transmitted through other processes which include, sharing of towels and also the exchange of clothes when they are not properly washed or disinfected. And due to this reason, they can mainly occur in schools.
Vector borne transmission
This is also another form of transmission of the infectious diseases. A vector is an organism or a microorganism that does not cause disease by itself, but that can transmit the same disease causing pathogen from one host to the other.
Prevention of infectious and control of the infectious disease
Infectious diseases can be controlled and prevented in various ways which includes
Proper hygiene and sanitation
Proper sanitation and hygiene can help to control and also to avoid the spread of the infectious diseases which are caused by direct contact mode of transmission. It can be used to prevent vector borne transmitted diseases through an elimination of the pathogens through proper hygiene.
Describe the interrelated factors that can determine the spread of infectious disease (including persistence of pathogen, the transmission mechanism, proportion immunized, a mobility of affected individuals).
There are several interrelated factors that can determine the spread of the infectious disease and they include:
The mode of transmission and the causes of the disease. This two are interrelated in that manner of transmission of the disease is in one way or the other related to the course of the same illness. For example, the transmission of the vector borne disease, when there is proper control of the transmission then the cause will automatically be reduced since the transmission agents are just carrier but not the original cause.
Epidemics and pandemics
Epidemics and pandemics are interrelated but have different meanings. Epidemics mainly occurs when the disease or the outbreak of the illness spread rapidly or very fast to many people. On the other hand always reoffered to as the global disease outbreak that is a disease which almost affects the whole global. An example includes the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
Discuss the incident of infectious disease around the world with the comparison between the developed and the underdeveloped countries.
More than a third of worldwide deaths are caused by or attributed to a small number of risk factors. In most of the low-income countries or the underdeveloped countries, mainly few risk are responsible for the increasing percentage of the greater number.of deaths. The obvious risk acts through increasing the incident of the infectious diseases.
Understand examples of disease control (e.g., controlling carriers, killing pathogens, quarantine, immune responses)
Examples of disease control include:
Controlling carriers can be used to managing the diseases such as the vector borne transmitted diseases. This can be done through making the environment clean to ensure that there is no inhabitation of the carrier organisms and thus will greatly control the spread of the infectious disease
Killing pathogens is also another good example of controlling the dissemination of the infectious diseases. Pathogens can be controlled and reduced through proper cleaning and sanitation and also through disinfection of the areas which can be infected with the pathogens.
This is the best way of controlling the infectious diseases. Immunization is the process of preventing an individual or an organism from future infection of the pathogen through the provision of the vaccine.
Explain the role of antibiotic against pathogens
Antibiotics which are sometimes referred to as the antibacterial are types of drugs which are used in the treatment and at the same time in the prevention of the bacterial infectious diseases. They can be used to either inhibit the growth of the bacteria or to kill the bacteria at large.
Understand the problem antibiotic resistance
The problem of the antibiotic resistance mainly occurs when the bacteria or the pathogen change in response to the antibiotics medicines. Antibiotics are medicines which are used to treat and also to prevent the transmission of the infectious disease. Antibiotic resistance is described to be one of the biggest threats to the entire global health, to the food security and also to the general development.
Describe how pathogens and host cell recognize each other
The pathogens or the microorganisms that invade or attack the host are immediately acknowledged by the innate immune system. This is done through the gremlin-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs).
Describe the entry point of the pathogens to the boy
There are several ways through which the pathogens can enter the body. Pathogens can enter the body through vulnerable places of your body which include the nose, mouth, ears and even through the open wounds.
The pathogens which are transmitted through the air that is the airborne transmitted diseases can enter the body through the nose or the mouth as you breath. This will automatically lead to the spread of the infectious diseases.
Pathogens which are present in the foods will enter the body through the mouth to the digestive system of the individual, and this will cause the disease
Pathogens can still enter the body through the carriers or the vectors directly into the blood stream. This can be transmitted through such vectors like the mosquito, tsetse fly.
Explain that some pathogens enter the cell to survive and to reproduce
There are several pathogens that enter the cell to reproduce and also to survive. This includes such pathogens like HIV viruses which invade the white blood cells, and grows in the cell thus making the cell to be very weak. They enter into the white blood cell, reproduce and multiply thus increasing in number and therefore greatly affecting the host. This is through the weakening of the of the immune system.
Describe the basic concept of molecular recognition (e.g., pathogens binding to the cellular receptors)
Molecular recognition is used to refer to the interaction between different molecules through on covalent bonding.
Explain that some pathogens must enter into the cell to ensure their survival, replication and also to evade the immune system.
Several pathogens enter the body of the host to ensure their survival. This includes such organisms like the HIV viruses that enter the body of the organism through the white blood cell, replicate into the cell and finally evade the cell thus weakening the human defensive system.;
The immune system
Define the term antigen
The antigen is defined as any substance which is foreign to the individual's body, and that evokes or interfere with the immune system either by itself or after forming the complex with a greater molecule and which is in the capacity of binding with the product of the immune system.
Compare foreign antigen (no self) and self-antigen
A Foreign antigen is that antigen that originates from outside the body while self-antigen is that antigen that originates from within the body
c) Describe the function of the various physical barriers (e.g., the skin and the mucous membrane to prevent the entry of the pathogens.
The skin and the mucus membrane plays a significant role in the prevention of the entry of pathogens into the body of an organism. The skin has smaller pores that cannot allow the entry of the microorganism to the body to invade the cell and the same applies to the mucous membrane.
Recognize that the innate (on the specific immune system) is the second line of defense with responses that are not specific.
The innate immune system which is also known n as the not specific is one of the most important sub systems of the general immune system and it comprises of the cells and also the mechanisms that which prevents the host from the infectious disease.
Recognize that most organism display innate immune system
In several general bodies display the innate immune system. This is because of the cells if the innate system always recognizes and also respond to the pathogens in a generic manner. The innate immune system is also an older defense strategy and is also the dominant immune system both in the plants and animal cells.
Describe how the adaptive (acquired) immune response reacts specifically to antigens
The adaptive immune system which is also referred to as the acquired immune system always uses a specific antigen to mount an n immune response. The adaptive immune system is also activated by the exposure to the pathogens and also the use of an n immunological memory to enable it to learn about the threat and at the same time to enhance immune response accordingly.
Describe how the human body responds specifically to the foreign antigen via the adaptive (acquired) (B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, antibodies, memory cells).
The human body reacts to the foreign antigens in various ways especially through the use of an adaptive acquired immune system. This is in the way they are designed to acts on a specific antigen.
Explain how exposure is required for active or passive immunity
Mostly active immunity is necessary or result when there is exposure to a disease pathogen or organism which on the hand triggers the immune system of the human body to produce antibodies to react to that disease.
Know that passive immunity may be required for maternal antibodies or antibody serum injection
Passive immunity as defined is the transfer of the active humoral immunity which may be in the form of the ready-made antibiotics. And therefore the antibody serum injection is significant in improving immunity system of an individual.
Know that active immunity may be required through natural exposure to a pathogen or vaccination
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