Research Report on the Effect Applied on Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness

5 pages
1114 words
Boston College
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Executive summary

Aims of the Research

The central objective of this research was to determine the effect applied on cutting parameters on the surface roughness. The research investigated cutting speed, depth of cutting, hardness and texture of the object. The research is mentored by current industry standards on cutting parameters hence advocate for standards development

Context of the Research

The research contains four key sections. They include, introduction, literature review, methodology and results, the second section conclusions and recommendations provide an analysis of the context and results


Experimental research methodology will be used because it provides a strategy for dealing with variables registered in this research. Variable registered include hardness, roughness, depth of the cut, and feed rate.


There are two items under investigation, cutting speed vs hardness and cutting speed vs roughness. Each item has several sub-items. The results demonstrate the higher the cutting speed, the deeper the depth of the cut, the slow the feed rate, and the lower the possibility of roughness.

1.0 Introduction

Current project investigates the appropriate settings of cutting parameters for obtaining improved surface roughness while turning 4140 steel under the CNC milling process settings. The methodology solves the problem of predicting the optimal surface roughness parameters based on the mathematical model that could be used by engineers and manufacturers in designing steel materials and components. Industries are striving for high-quality surface seconded by decreased machining time, which surround both high cost and time consumption. Providing measurements during turning Steel 4140 as the case suggested, will help generate viable conclusion on the relationship between the plot of hardness, cutting speed and feed rate. Such results improve the research on cutting parameters or even suggest a new industry parameter.

1.2 Background

Before the invention of cutting parameters, refining of the iron took stages of smoothening, as such the man work involved was immense, boring, and expensive as well did not provide accurate results for perfect engineering standards. Cutting was done using rudimentary methods, even at times, usage of charcoal fire. However, electricity and mechanization have improved how human being interacts with metal. One particular industry product is steel. AISI Steel 4140 contains low alloy steel given that it is a composition of, Molybdenum, Manganese, and Chromium. The mental can withstand abrasion, impact resistance, toughness, fatigue strength, and torsional.

Table 1: Chemical Composition of the Content

Chemical Composition Content (%)

Carbon, C 0.380 - 0.430

Chromium, Cr 0.80 - 1.10

Manganese, Mn 0.75 - 1.0

Molybdenum, Mo 0.15 - 0.25

Phosphorous, P 0.035

Silicon, Si 0.15 - 0.30

Sulfur, S 0.040

(Azom, 2017).

Given the metal absolute hardness, it requires special cutting material Al203 a ceramic material that cut effectively (Aslan, Camuscu, and Birgoren, 2007). However, exposing the metal to such a hard ceramic creates high friction that might have unintended results. Such results are avoided by the adoption of cutting parameters that reduce the minimum damage and even create a desirable surface. The study analyses the parameters in detail in the Literature section, hence examine which cutting parameter has the best effect on the surface roughness. Tests conducted on the report explores counterplot of hardness against feed rate. The results are logically constructed using a simulator based on the variables provided. The feed rate is the rate at which the material is turning while the depth of cutting is the surface roughness. Each of the parameters established is industry based efforts to reduce the unintended results at a lower and manageable cost.

1.3 Problem Statement

So far, cost aspects are shaping the industry of steel cutting. With the invention of computers, workload, has been reduced as well better quality results based on mathematical models have been achieved. However, dwindling power sources and increasing demand are forcing industry developers to rethink the viability of the venture. The problem is that as much as there is an almost consistent invention, the bottlenecks are still consistent. Managing cost means investigating the efficiency of the production process. Efficiency revolves around effects of applied cutting parameters on the surface roughness.

1.4 Aim

Studying the effect of applied cutting parameter on the surface roughness measurement during turning 4140

1.4.1 Objectives

Determine hardness of Steel 4140

Speculate the best viable speed during turning

Identify the best viable feed rate

Suggest a new industry direction

1.5 Scope

Improving industry standards via identifying accurate cutting parameters helps in lowering cost of electricity, destroyed materials, and as well provides the globe with effective material for their daily applications.

2.0 Literature Review

Contemporary research proves to turn is a residual procedure in the removal of metal, however as effective it has become, there are challenges of quality of surface roughness. Turning allows smart perfection increasing the quality of results. Turning also allows removal of metal chips that could result in inefficiencies. Metals such as Piston Rings require uniform characteristics in size, surface roughness, and shape. The challenge revolves around achieving optimal parameters. The review analyses the scholarly contributions of others researchers, provide a deep theoretical and hypothetical judgments of different contributions, in light with providing a stronger and critical evaluation of concurrent research. The review will also provide clear definitions of key terms and terminology, as well identifies studies models, case studies that are related to the topic, finally interrelates and compares these findings with the study main research idea. Projecting the research from the theoretical point of view strengthens other sections as this creates a contrasting point of view showing the differences between this research and other scholarly reports.

2.1 Parameters

Deng et al.,(2012, p. 40) argue optimization of cutting parameters is essentially difficult work considering aspects of awareness, the higher requirement of empirical equations, power, forces, and development of realistic constraints. Hence, the researchers such as Jeang (2011) have crafted numerical and mathematical optimization techniques that allow appropriate selection of machining parameters provided using machine-cutting materials. Due to their research, the following cutting parameters have been adopted. These parameters are suitable for 4140 steel.

2.1.1 Material Machinability

Researchers for example Fan et al. (2013, p. 262) explored the cost, in relation to productivity and quality where the application of statistical tools allow perfect results. Taguchi Tomadi et al., (2013), methods provide justification of cost-effective, systematic results and efficient methodologies used to optimize results, quality, performance and the costs. A machine that has higher cutting is basically expensive in the industry because cutting forces and surfaces roughness are the most. Besides, the media of the machine tools matters.

2.2.2 Cutting Tool Material

Concerning choices of cutting material used, carbide seems the most reliable tool for Steel 4140. Since the surface quality is the central focus in determining the efficiency of machine tools, key importance surrounds the functional behavior as well as the development of mechanical parts. Adaskin (2014, p. 409) surface roughness is subject to wear rate, lubrication, corrosion, friction, and resistance based on the complex processes. The theoretical models revolve around estimated parameters. Edge orientation surfaces...

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