Research Paper Example on Hodgkins Disease

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1263 words
University of Richmond
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Research paper
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Hodgkins Disease (HD) refers to a form of lymphoma, cancer of the lymph system. The lymphatic system consists part of the immune system. It is created by particular kinds of white blood cells known as lymphocytes that provide a helping hand in getting rid of waste and protection of the body against disease and infection (Kuppers, Andreas and Martin-Leo 3439). Hodgkins disease emanates from lymphocytes that grow abnormally, hence encountering malignant change and spread in an unconstrained manner in the lymphatic system. The advancement of the disease reduces the body's capability of fighting against any infections. HD can be nodular lymphocytes-predominant Hodgkins disease or classical Hodgkin's disease. Reed-Sternberg cells found in Hodgkins disease makes it different from the other categories of lymphoma. Hodgkins disease can arise at any age although it mostly affects individuals aged 15 and 40 and people above the age 55 (Simon and David para 2). According to (imaging-adapted therapy), the disease is one among the most common malignancies in young adults. However, it is comparatively rare. HD is comparatively more common in males than females; it is one of the most amenable cancer the whole world. The paper shall focus on Hodgkins disease anatomical and physiological components and how it affects patients.

The anatomical components refer to the parts of the lymphatic system that Hodgkins disease affects in the human body. These components include constitutes of the lymph ducts, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels and other organs that contribute in the blood-forming components and the immune system. The HD starts from the lymph nodes and then spread to the lymph ducts which subsequently affects the other lymph nodes around it. A lymphoma that arises from the neck node will then spread to other lymph nodes on the same side of the neck. The disease may move down to the armpits where other nodes are located on the same side of the neck. HD causes the lymph nodes to become swollen and inflamed in the upper part of the body. This is the most common anatomical effect of the disease (Simon and David para 5). This occurs because the cells which have become cancerous begin to affect the rest of the lymphatic system. The swelling may cause the lymph nodes to have hard knots that happen to be painful to the touch under the skin. However, the lump may not be severe hence problematic to notice the lymph nodes. It may develop in one or even more of the human body such as around the groin, armpits, occipital, on the side of the neck. Some lymph nodes that develop in the cervical, axilla, above the collarbone or groin parts are usually noticeable. In the late stages of the HD, the illness spread to the blood stream which consequentially attacks the organs and the bone marrow. The enlargement of the lymph nodes is the first symptom, and during diagnosis, they have a rubbery consistency. The lymph node in the neck, the groin, and the armpits are the sites where the diagnosis is frequently done since the condition attacks these areas first before spreading to other parts of the body. The disease leads to immune suppression that exposes people to contracting the various infection. Additionally, even after treatment of the HD, the immune remains suppressed in some individuals and the condition contributes to leukemia in some patients. The chemotherapy that the patients undergo is associated with the suppression of the immune system. In some cases, patients may experience a swollen abdomen that could be confused with pregnancy in some female clients. In some cases, fluid building up in the abdominal cavity may exert pressure on the intestines that would make passage of feces a challenge and hence pain in the abdominal region.

Physiology refers to the functioning of the organs of the body, and these areas will focus on HD effects on the anatomical components of the lymphatic system. Various physiological disruption due to the condition or illness ranging from treatment side effects, stress and altered metabolism can contribute to cardiovascular diseases and hormonal disorders among other issues. The HD increases the chances of developing heart problems and contribute to death due to cases such as stroke and heart attack (Shinohara, Elizabeth, and Karen Para 2). Studies have linked stress, radiation, alteration in the metabolic processes, and chemotherapy as the main risk factors for developing heart attacks in patients with this illness. The treatment leads to increased blood pressure and the level of cholesterol the body. When the patient experiences stress, the symptoms of the condition gets worse. During radiation treatment, the neck is the target region since its the major part the illness attack or start on the lymph nodes. Unfortunately, the process has targets the large blood vessels in the area which increases the chances of developing stroke which may lead to death. When metabolism has been disrupted, the control of the cholesterol in the body becomes a challenge. For this reason, developing cardiovascular conditions stated above is almost inevitable. Another physiological component that is disrupted in the body due to the condition is the hormonal functioning (Shinohara, et al., Para 5). Since the neck nodes are the first to be affected in most cases, the thyroid gland in this region which produces hormonal regulating metabolism is affected. During radiation treatment in the neck area, the gland may be affected. Once the gland has been damaged cases of low thyroid levels are experienced and expressed through symptoms such as weight gain, dry skin, fatigue, depression, and reduced appetite among other signs. These outcomes are also associated with poor metabolism and hence the other related symptoms such as increased cholesterol. In some patients, the HD is located in the chest which affects the respiratory system of the patients. For instance, the patient develops a constant cough, and at high, there is profusely sweating that drenched the shits in the bed. Some patients experience pain in the chest or some while eating or drinking may feel pain in the lymph node. When lymph nodes are affected, they affect the functioning or organs around it apart from infecting the closest lymph nodes.

In conclusion, the HD is a rare B-cell malignant neoplasm, and current prevalence is increasing at the rate of 9000 people each year. In the USA more than 10% of the Lymphoma cases are accounted by HD (Ansell 1152). People of age between 15 and 50 years are the primary victims of the condition, with male gender taking the highest percentage (Ansell 1152). During onset weight loss, fatigue, constipation, and profusely sweating at night are the main signs to consider. Treatment includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery to extract the infect lymph node. For those undergoing treatment, leading a healthy life style is vital to, for instance, regular exercise and healthy diet to manage the side effects of the drug treatment. The cause is a mutational change which leads to rapid growth of cells as one of the b-cells that help in fighting infections gets infected in the process. In some cases there is a genetic link in patients forms a lineage with people suffering from the condition.


Work cited

Ansell, Stephen M. "Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: diagnosis and treatment." Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Vol. 90. No. 8. Elsevier, 2015.

Kuppers, Ralf, Andreas Engert, and Martin-Leo Hansmann. "Hodgkin lymphoma." The Journal of clinical investigation 122.10 (2012): 3439.

Simon, Harve, and David Zieve. "Hodgkin's disease." University of Maryland Medical Center. University of Maryland Medical Centre, 2013. Web. 17 July 2017. <>.

Shinohara, Eric, Elizabeth Kuhn, and Karen Arnold-Korzeniowski. "All About Adult Hodgkin's Disease." OncoLink. OCNCOLINK, 2016. Web. 17 July 2017. <>.


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