Report Example on Australia's Macroeconomic Indicators

2021-07-07 10:28:19
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1880 words
Vanderbilt University
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The macroeconomic indicator is the key measure that is used to measure the current state of the economy of a particular country.  It can also be used to give an insight into the future of the economy. The economic indicators used by a country to measure the state of an economy can be classified into three types that are cyclic counter cyclic and pro cyclic (Egert, 2012, pp.46). A cyclic indicator does not possess a direct connection to the economic performance of a country. Therefore, this type of indicator cannot be used as a good economic indicator.  Counter cyclic indicators are inversely proportional to the performance of the economy. GDP which is an economic factor that measures the economic health of a country can be classified as a pro cyclic indicator. The paper below analyzes the current state of the Australian economy and predicts the future of the economic state for the coming six months.

Monetary Policy and Inflation

The usage of monetary by a reserve bank is carried out with the goal of improving the economy; that is to make a maintained low inflation rate by the best possible administration of interest rates, cash supply in circulation and money related conditions to accomplish high monetary development and business and proficient use of available resources in the general public. The way to advance the economy can be gotten with kept up value solidness, which is the result of appropriate money related approach choices, conditions, and guidelines. The primary instruments are open market operations in securities advertises by national bank and intercession in remote trade showcase. In Australia, Reserve Bank of Australia is in charge of planning and executing fiscal policies (Rushdi et al., 2012, pp.43). Its principal targets are the stabilization of money, economic growth, and welfare of the people and the maintenance of full employment.

Real indicators utilized for monetary policy outline is inflation. It can be characterized as the general upward value development of products in an economy ordinarily as measured by the consumer price index and producer price index. As the cost of the goods and services expands the purchasing power of the buyers tumbles down which brings about inflation. The rate of inflation varies now and again. In the course of the last fifty years, the expansion has been significantly fluctuating running from 0 - 20 rate. Despite the fact that Australia endeavor to keep up a particular rate of inflation which is 2 - 3 % rate, however, can shift contingent upon conditions (Melvin and Norrbin, 2017, pp.3). As sustenance cost raised Australia's inflation rate grabbed, adding to likely hood of a rated climb. According to the bureau of statistics, the final quarter of the past three months the consumer price index went up by 0.5%.Inflation lying on an annual rate rose by 2.1%. Australian Bureau of Statistics Said that fruit price index hopped 15.9 % for the first quarter of the year; there is inflation in household travel and accommodation by 6.6 percent (Bonoli, 2017, pp.5). This ascent in costs makes Glen Stevens, the national bank senator to ascend the seat check loaning rate this quarter after he turned into the main arrangement producer on the planet to raise borrowing rates a year ago. The figures distributed for this present month demonstrates that the certainty is surging in the midst of the greatest employing blast in over three years, piling pressure on inflation, which the bank expects to keep between 2 percent and three percent. It is expected to remain constant for the next six months (Wilkins et al., 2016, pp.16).

Fiscal policy

The fiscal policy is the power that is used by the government policies and how it affects the economy of a country by making adjustments in the budget of a country. The adjustments that are made to the budget include the payment of welfares, adjustments in tax and government expenditure. This describes the possible outcomes of the changes in the budget to the economic activities. The monetary policy of Australia ensures there is price stability in the market; there are positive economic growth and full employment of Australian citizens (Fazzari et al., 2015, pp.289). The policy ensures it regulates the flow of money and the income that can be disposed from circulation by the consumers. The effect of this action has effects on the income distribution, resource management, level of economic activity and the market demand.

Gross Domestic Product

The Gross Domestic Product is the market valuation of all final products that are produced within a countries boundaries. The Gross Domestic Product of a country can be classified into four different components which are consumption, investment, net exports and government purchases (Cumming, and Johan, 2016, PP.25). These components are valued at the market price and the total value of the goods when consolidated. The GDP can found by using the following method:

GDP = Consumption + Investment + Government Spending + Net export.

GDP can be calculated using three main methods. They include the expenditure approach which calculates the total amount spent on products, the product approach that calculates the market value of products produced within a country. The third method is the income approach that calculates the total of all income earned from products produced within the country (Kubiszewski et al., 2013, pp.57).

Australia and its GDP

Gross domestic product is thought to be outstanding amongst other monetary pointers that mirror the substance of the economy. It's one among the broadly acknowledged financial pointers all through the world. An ascent in GDP mirrors that there is development in that specific economy. There has been an expansion in 0.9% in the Australian GDP in the last quarter. The present Australian GDP is at net 1015 billion dollars. In contrast with the world economy, it is 1.64% of the world economy (Ward et al., 2016, pp.e0164733.). The significant supporters of the Australian economy are the service sector followed by the agricultural industry and then the agricultural sector. The accessibility of plentiful natural resources is an additionally preferred standpoint which makes the economy more competitive. If we have a neglect on the Australian economy we could see that Australia was in a position to maintain a steady growth in the period over January 2006 - January 2010, however, there was an exemption in the quarter January 2009, where we see a negative development index of 0.9%. Influencing an examination we to see that Australia was in a position to keep up unfaltering financial development.

The negative growth recorded in the quarter finished January 2009 was out of retreat which is a marvel that emerges out of the fall in the general yield levels. In the time recently 2008 and mid-2009 we saw that the world economy was moving into subsidence because of fall in the general yield levels. A considerable lot of the real world economies were vigorously hit by the retreat, and particularly the United States took after by different economies moving into the recession (Frankel and Saravelos, 2012, pp.216). It began with the subprime emergency that emerged because of over the top loaning, in the United States. A significant number of the saving money majors like the Lehman siblings which had its history dated back to mid nineteenth century needed to close down because of overwhelming misfortunes. This sort of extreme loaning in the US made numerous issues as the truth part was shooting up finished a consistent timeframe. In the underlying stages, it was thought to be great, however, later on, it was hard to understand that the outcomes were appalling. The inordinate loaning process brought about over the money circulation in excess within the economy, this brought about inflation subsequently the Federal Reserve increment the financing cost which made the borrowings more costly (Richards and Authority, 2016, pp.7). As an impact of making the borrowings more costly, it made the shoppers being placed into a circumstance where their bills being more costly.

In specific cases, the result on the bills was more than their net income. This brought about bankruptcy in huge numbers. The inordinate borrowings made by the customers were utilized as interest in the reality area, this made the lodging costs in the US shooting up, and this went to a harness when the borrowings were made costly which thus brought about an adjustment in a situation from abundance request over supply to overabundance supply over the request. The impact of this was seen worldwide, and the effect of this was even found in Australia where the housing prices dunked in late 2008 and mid-2009 (Erkens et al., 2012, pp.389). This was the purpose behind the fall in output levels in the quarter January 2009 in Australia. As this was an overall Marvel Australia was additionally influenced, yet the reality to be noted is that the effect in Australia was not as awful in contrast with the United States and Europe.


In Macro Economics an exemplary model expresses that economy is dependable at full work. Joblessness, if saw at any stage, is viewed as simply frictional, numerous conceivable reasons can come about for business like laborers exchanging employments regularly. Since there is no component of joblessness in the model so no connection can be found in Labor Market and conduct of wages (Milner et al., 2013, pp. 237). As wages are just controlled by the profitability of an item and effect of estimating however in no way, shape or form joblessness has no part to play.

The main cause of poverty in Australia is employment (Callander et al., 2012, pp. 141). The rate of unemployment is one of the monetary markers of the level to which Australian economy is working to its full limit. It characterizes the joblessness level isolated by the work constraint. Australia utilizes the standard meaning of work. The joblessness rate of Australia began expanding since World War I and II. Australia has taken awesome endeavors to bring down the joblessness rates constantly.

Australia was able to avoid the worst global recession; however, there was an unfaltering increment in the unemployment since 2008. The solid impact of the fiscal stimulus package of Australia, tax breaks, and public expenditure has padded the expansion of joblessness made in light of the global financial downturn. The working hour's changes counteracted vast employment misfortunes, however, this prompted the development of the dissatisfaction in the laborers. There was a rapid growth in the rate of unemployment among the youth (Britt et al., 2013, pp.412).


In conclusion, there has been a gigantic change in the yield levels according to the most recent insights in contrast with the previous year. This can be supported by the recovery seen with in the economy. There has been an unfaltering change in the work levels since the quarter finished January 2009. The current jobless rate is at 5.30% which is vastly improved than the last quarter. The rate of economic growth recorded in the last quarter is 0.9% which has made the file in green. The inflation rate is at 2.10%, which is thought to be sure as a rate of 2-3% in inflation is thought to be good. In Australia, inflation is calculated on the Consumer Price Index which makes the accountability and transparency more precise and straightforward, dissimilar to nations like India where inflation is ascertained on the Wholesale Price Index. On the off chance that the inflation is computed on the Wholesale Price Index it doesn't give a right picture in the economy as the retailers charge a noteworthy overabundance over the edge than the real change in cost....

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