Q. 1. Why do the authors title the years from c.500 to c.1000 the Postclassical Era?
The authors termed the periodic history of the world between C. 500 to C.1000 as postclassical Era after an onset of gender roles and social structures that had spread from the Middle East, western Europe, and Africa. There were notable changing aspects of religion, government structures and economic stability (Mayes 183). During this period, a Christian church that was at Istanbul was overshadowed by a mosque and later transformed into a museum during the time of Christian Commonwealth. While gender roles changed from good to worst in India, they improved in other areas. Also, this period was termed as postclassical era since there was a realization of improvement in social structures in Europe due to stabilization of in the economy. Also, it acquired the name to mark the changes that were occurring in Africa due to strange encounters, colonialization and political instability that attracted most of their colonizers. Also during this period, there was the reconstruction of the Roman Empire from Germanic people (Mayes 183). The term postclassical era came into play since even the Islam religion had gained power and was fetching its identity and stake in most of the continent from c. 674 to c. 718. (Mayes 184)
Q.2. Regarding the course of world historical developments, what role did the Byzantine Empire play both for what it accomplished within its borders and in the broader world beyond them?
Byzantine dominated both military and political affairs around the Mediterranean since it maintained a healthy economy. Byzantine accomplished abundant agricultural developments by producing surplus food, had sufficient crafts employees and took part in trade all over Mediterranean. Byzantine later brought balance among the rich and the poor by limiting the wealthy landlords and landowners from having too much control over the poor (Mayes 185). Byzantine empire shaped trade associations by introducing banking services that gave the poor loans hence reducing the gap between the rich and the poor. It also enhanced relationship among people by killing the acts that were making merchants to misuse the poor (Mayes 192). Byzantine strengthen the spread of religion concerning Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and Hindu.
Q. 3. How did beliefs and developments in Islams earliest years (up to c.633) influence the way in which Muslims viewed the wider world and behaved towards it over the first century or so (up to c.750)?
Islam came to be powerful in their religion and overtook Christianity to the point of taking the Holy wisdom church at Istanbul and transformed it into a mosque. The viral spread of Islam religion since the 1st to the onset of the 6th century made Muslims view their religion to be superior. The leaders of Islam had established a stable society with people overshadowing the tribal lines to a powerful State and later launched an attack during the preoccupied period of the empire (Mayes 203). They then developed instincts of revenge on the Byzantine Syria and Palestine and took the ownership of most of Mesopotamia. In 640 C.E., Islam conquered Egypt and Byzantine North Africa. The later conquered Sesani in 651 c.e and made Persia be in the midst of their empire. Islam conquered Hindu and most of the Iberian empires and extended their authority over Northwest Africa. Therefore, Islam ended up ruling lands from India up to Iberia lands in the West by 711 (Mayes 203). In 740 C.E, Abu al-Abba army ambushed Umayyad forces in 750 and later defeated them and invited the remnants to a banquet and then slaughtered them.
Q. 4. As Islam came into contact with traditions elsewhere, how did it treat them?
As Islam associate with other traditions and being a mighty empire at during the late postclassical era, many people accepted the Muslim culture and most people identified themselves with it while most people rejected their traditions. For instance, during 656-661 c.e., there was disagreements that were guided by secession which that led to the onset of Shia sect which is an alternative to the Muslim faith which was observed by most Muslims (Mayes 203). The alternative was due to the prolonged disagreement hence naming the alternative Muslim as Sunni Islam. On the other hand, the Umayyad Dynasty enhanced their association with the Muslim and later accepted to live harmoniously with the Muslim by establishing a better communication and expanded the Islamic empire.
Q. 5. Why did Western Europe (the area of the former Western Roman Empire) develop along different historical lines as compared to the Byzantine Empire (the Eastern Roman Empire)?
Western Europe developed a different historical line in comparison to Byzantine Empire since in western Europe there was an increasingly complex structure that was limiting the roles of women while in Eastern Europe the Muslim had enhanced the relationships of people. Secondly, there was increasing complexity of the economy as many landlords demoralized the peasants. Byzantines used fraudulent means by letting Germanic people make successor state to the western Roman empire which the empire of Byzantine consider it to be part of their land and property. Another aspect that made Byzantine develop early was that it had a powerful military which was as a result of the support from the reliable capital sources.
Organized banks that offered the Byzantine people enough capital to invest made them be far away from comparing Byzantine developed early since it had a productive capacity since it depended on Constantinople. Also, Western Europe was characterized by women holding higher positions like the throne but still was inferior to men, the society and the empire were dependent on Constantinoples control, a peasant was heavily taxed and supplied food among others. It was a period of increased tension, and inequality was highly growing allowing merchants to acquire independent roles in the society. Byzantine empire developed early since it concentrated more on farming (Mayes 185). The culture of the Byzantine supported strongly the poor class and peasants who suffered due to lack of enough piece of land. The Byzantines offered peasants loans to use in making ends meet.
Q. 6. Why were developments in China so influential within the broader East Asian world?
The development in China was so influential to the East Asian World since it had several public health services which the East Asian world was to emulate having seen that the development involves retirement homes, the vast number of medical present and graveyards which offered respect to the prominent members of the society (Mayes 179). The educational development was also relevant since the educated Chinese would help in working in East Asian Industries and farms.
Work CitedMayes, David, Postclassical Era 500 C.E. to 1000 C.E. World History part 1. McGraw Hil. (2016): 177-204
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