According to the historian Edward Gibbon, the Rome ceased to exist in the year AD 476 since 27 BC making more than 500 years of existence. The date has been broadly accepted since it was when the last Roman emperor was overthrown by Torcilingi Odoacer, king of Germany, to head the western region of the Roman Empire. Then the eastern region became the Byzantine Empire and named capital city Constantinople, the modern Istanbul (Gibbon, 2017). Barbarian is a term that refers to uncivilized individuals or malevolent persons with wicked activities, the term originated from the ancient Greece and was formerly to people who didnt express themselves in Greek. In my opinion, I believe the following aspects contributed to the fall: Christianity and loss of traditional values, government corruption and political instability and economic crisis and inflation.
Christianity was legalized in AD 313 by Edict Milan which was later declared state religion in AD 380. The acceptance of Christianity stopped the persecution. However, the stop might have eroded the traditional Roman norms system (Gibbon, 2017). Christianity removed the aspect viewing the emperor as having a divine position and put all the glory of the country to one deity, God. The popes and pastors became highly influential in political matters complicating supremacy.
Roman Emperor job was always life threatening, however, in the second and third centuries, it almost became a suicide mission. The civil war put the empire into turmoil, and twenty men took the sovereignty in seventy-five years only. The political rot impacted the Roman senate that was unable to control excessive emperors power due to their incompetence and extensive corruption.
The Romans economy largely depended on the slaves to plough their field and labor as craftsmen, and its military strength had customarily provided a fresh in streaming of conquered individuals to work (Gibbon, 2017). Later, in the second-century expansion ground was limited substantially decreasing the supply of slaves and other war resources.
The Pillars of the Earth, Alexander Nevsky, the Return of Martin Guerre
The three pillars of the earth include the Roman and Greek legacy, Christianity precisely the Medieval Catholic Church and the values of the Germanic Barbarians. The Christianity aspect principally was based on the Hebraic heritage from which biblical Christianity was established (Faria, 2015). The Christianity foundation builds on the Old Testament Hebrew religion since even the new has direct or indirectly quotes from the Old Testament. The religion heritage consists of monotheistic, ethical and anthropophilic aspect.
The return of Martin Guerre is restructuring of the well-known case of Martin Guerres go back to Artigat in Southern France after absentia in the region for more than eight years. Conversely, Martin is an impostor named Arnaud du Tilh; he is warmly welcomed by family and friends for three years. After the Martin had a conflict with family over finances and auction of the farm, he accused of his uncle and father-in-law of impersonating. He is subjected to two trials: first convicted of impersonating and sentenced to death; second, the real Martin shows up.
Alexander Nevsky was the son of Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich, defeated the Swedes at the river confluence, his strictness facilitated his victory and later started to interfere in the affairs and was expelled after one month. Alexander was invited to Christianity by Novgorod who was urged by Pope Gregory IX to convert the Baltic region to Christianity (Faria, 2015). He prevented the ordinary individuals suffering from engaging in dealings with Mongrol. He was supported by the church and was also exempted from taxes payments.
Christianity is the common factor among the three entities: in the first Christianity is among the pillars of the earth that majorly based on the Old Testament (Faria, 2015), the second was the reliance of Old Testament when dealing with the offenses Martin had committed. Lastly, the church was very supportive of Alexander deeds.
Three Parts of middle Ages
Middle Ages (medieval period) is a phenomenon phrase used to describe Europe amid fall of Rome in AD 476 and the start of the Renaissance in the 14th century. The middle Ages is categorized in three periods: the Early, the High and Late Middle Ages. The Early MA (Middle Age) is thought to start with fall of Roman Empire through to the 11th century. It includes the sovereignties of Danish Kings of England and Alfred the Great (Lawrence, 2015). The period constituted the often Viking activity, the Iconoclastic Controversy and the development and widespread of Islam in Spain. During this time, Christianity rapidly spread in Europe and evolution of Papacy into the powerful political entity.
High Middle Ages began in the 11th century and ended in 1300; in this period there were significant occasions: Norman downfalls in Britain and Sicily, the prior Crusades, the validation of the Magna Carta and the Investiture Controversy (Lawrence, 2015). In the late 11th century almost every region of Europe had become Christians; long develop as a political power, engaged in an endless fight with some earthly governments.
Late medieval is characterized by the revolution from the middle age world to the early modern world which started in 1300. The events in this medieval period included Hundred Years War, the Black Death, the Italian Renaissance, the Avignon Papacy and the Peasants Revolt. John of Arc was charred at stake during the 15th century, the driving of Moors from Spain and expelling of the Jews, an expedition of Columbus to the New World (Lawrence, 2015). In the 16th century, there was the birth of Shakespeare, 17th century- Great fire of London and 30yrs War.
Renaissance, Discovery, and Relation to Industrial Evolution
Renaissance refers to the period which was immediate subsequent of Middle Ages in Europe that resulted in an intense revival of interest in the orthodox learning and standards of ancient Greece and Rome. Renaissance impacted the world since it initiated new techniques for crafting painting; art had started penetrating northern Europe a new church was also developed renovation of the Catholic Church. The renaissance art was used to demonstrate the individuals emotions. The renaissance artist attempted to explore new methods to develop a new type of painting (Oakeshott, 2012). This art rapidly extended from Italy to Northern Europe popularizing it the regions. It profoundly influenced the world since it developed firsthand techniques for the artists to deploy in their art work. The church underwent significant changes: the reformation of the Catholic Church, development of original Christian church and build of the new church. Renaissance continued the classical philosophy, mathematics and natural science that had begun to recuperate during the late Middle Age in the 12th century.
Renaissance era presented innovative ideas and accessibility to technology which ultimately improved the Industrial Revolution. The developments of machines during Renaissance through creativity lead to the induction of the Industrial Revolution. The average business entrepreneurs triggered revolution through attempting to adapt the power of science for financial purposes (Oakeshott, 2012). This science application (technology) facilitated the transformation of the economy in various ways. In this period Renaissance stimulated people to pursue material comforts advancing a scientific approach to issues hence promoting inventions. James invention in 1769 AD of the steam engine was the initial development then, it's proclaimed power which science led to economic development. In the late Renaissance, era entrepreneurs had been creating water controlled machines to replace individual.
Western civilization also known as western culture, Western lifestyle or European civilization is a terminology referring to the heritage of societal norms, ethical morals, traditional rituals, political governance, beliefs and particular objects and technologies that are a slight association or partial originality with Europe. The ancient Roman law lasted to have a significant meaning in the western civilization, and western legal beliefs which substantially made Romans close to Westernization (Pyne, 2016). The long-term impact the law had on western is vivid in; the incorporation of Mediterranean ecumene to a single empire which endured spiritually in modern Europe; Roman theory of political authority as a legalized supremacy; strict separation of legal sovereignty from its social and economic contextual. Lastly, control of legal resolution through consistent systems technics of the intellectual standard.
In the Western Europe, the first organization similar to the modern state developed from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire; Burgundian and Visigothic Kingdom developed within the Roman Empire while Frankish kingdom grew in the northwestern regions of the earlier Empire. In the western civilization, Roman has been a fundamental subject in the faculty of law since it gives essential background for deducing own civil law (Pyne, 2016). Comprehension of Roman law is crucial in the critical assessment of the present or projected legislation. Further, the fight against the historical misinterpretations of ancient or current legislators is often won by embracing the Roman legal sources.
Three major revolutions in the history of Western civilization
Western civilization originated from the civilization of Greece and Rome who consequently initiated from the platforms laid by the ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Its materialized into old society, medieval Europe, developing economic dynamism, Christian religion, and disseminated power-structures. There are majorly three significant revolutions: American, industrial and modern Europe revolutions.
Since the 15th century, the European community was transformed by a sequence of revolutionary changes. These changes included trade expansion, the growth of towns, printing came into practicality, and gunpowder armies triggered primitive power structures to be demolished for replacement by centralized monarchies (Spielvogel, 2014). During this period the upsurge of secularism was given a significant boost by the Rationalist philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment. All things were scrutinized newly, and the causes and consequences of the natural resources were assessed.
European colonies in North America by the middle of the 18th century were fully functional societies in their mandate. The colonists pinpointed the developing potential of their future which resulted in American Revolution in 1775 to 1783. The constitution which its had drafted to govern its own was deliberately sculpted on the Enlightened standards of intellectual authority. Since the British system of symbolic parliamentary rule, the American came up with the most democratic regime in the world then.
The industrial revolution started in the mid- 18th century and had been vastly advanced by the original application of steam power to drive mechanical devices (Spielvogel, 2014). Major industrial regions were developing in the Midlands, Scotland and Northern England by the late 18th century where several countries produced large quantities of manufactured goods. In the 19th century, there was continuous economic enlargement and initiation of spread to North America and later Europe. The steam power for transport purpose leads to the railways extending to Britain, North America, and Europe.
World War 1
Great War was commonly used to refer to the First World War then. However, European War was on some occasions used. WW1was called Great War because its indicated the gigantic scale of the conflict. After the ces...
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