In Chapter Seven, Thomas Paine begins with an assertion that humanity rested initially on the workings of an established equality state. This can only mean that the present state of inequalities in the human race must have been birthed forth by particular circumstances. According to Paine (16), the divide between subjects and their kings was the only distinction that lacked religious grounds. Unlike other distinctions like males and females, the natural distinction between kings and their subjects was of particular attention to Paine. Originally, there had been no existence of kings globally. Later on, the Jews borrowed this custom from unbelievers that surrounded the Israelite state. This was a most grievous mistake they would forever regret in their endeavors to become like other nations. A man was created to be ruled by God alone, Paine (23) continues to argue. From the above statement, we already get to see the biblical origin of monarchical rule. In this chapter, Paine attacks the mentality of hereditary succession severely. He argues out his case that all men ought to be handled on equal grounds and one family ought not to be pre-ordained in presiding over other subjects eternally. A person deserving certain honors has no right to pass them onto his children, who may be unworthy of them. Paine further on states that the recent kingship in England has not brought legitimate power into exercise; as a result, he prefers that all kings should be elected into office than through succession. Thomas Paine exalts the guiding republicanism principle of the people choosing their leaders. In the final parts of this article, Madison debates over just how much democracy is to be incorporated while governing the United States people. He vibrantly praises George Washington who was an exemplary figure through his virtues showcased throughout the United States' national social and political philosophy.
The Avalon Project
On the 22 of November 1787, the Federalist essay was posted in the New York's magazine for daily advertisement by James Madison (Kernell, 111). This essay was recognized as one of the best-known works he had ever done when it came to publishing. "The union that was well constructed" in the United States posed numerous advantages according to his article. Madison continues to write out that the tendency in which an individual had towards bringing into control the faction violence is an ability that deserves to be developed with accuracy. By 1787, the nation had been reduced down to a chaotic state as the continental congress and the national government grew impotent and incompetent. In his article, Madison seeks a national remedy for the disease that had eaten up the republican government. Madison believed that faction was caused by "man's nature", therefore could only be eliminated through the destruction of liberty (Kernell, 106). He instead proposes another way out of the chaos; to form a government which would effectively represent all interested groups and factions within the American population. He hoped that in this model, no one would gain an advantage over others in matters concerning ascendancy. The same as Madison writes can be achieved by electing men of reputation and discernment into office. Taking into careful thought the blueprint of the Federal Constitution, it is noble to say that Madison would be disappointed in his efforts as the American political structure fails to control the faction violence. Deep in the republic's history, we see that no leader had the capacity to overlook personal differences in a bid to manufacture policies that would benefit the common good. All Madison hoped for was a new nation. It is this hope that drove him to replace the radical deflection that had consumed the national political system. He essentially desired a government that could address national problems through its policy. Amongst leaders that had served with selfish goals; Madison saw room for improvement. He recognizes that few leaders of integrity would always be in few supply. According to Madison, there would be no need for the government had men been angels; he thereby hopes that the "well-constructed union" would cater effectively for this shortage in angels.
Kernell, Samuel. "'The True Principles of Republican Government': Reassessing James Madison's Political Science." James Madison: The Theory and practice of republican government (2003): 92-125.
Paine, Thomas. Rights of Man, Common Sense, and other political writings. Oxford University Press, 2008.
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